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^ 



SIX PENCE. 



:Fourtl& Edition, Be^rlaed and Enlarired. 
32nd Tkousaad. 




BEGINNER'S 
GUIDE 



TO 



PHOTOGRAPHY, 



M^. 



Copyright. 



PRESS OPINIONS. 

Third Edition. Beginners Guide to PluAograplvj ^ 6dL, 

LAND AND WATER. 

'•The Beginner's Guide to Photography. Anyone who had never taken a photograph 
n his life could go to work with confidence with this guide by his side." 

INVENTION. 

'"Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment, 90, 
Hatton Garden, EC.) This is a very practical guide, in which useful advice is given how to 
buy a camera, and how to use it. Any beginner would be able to learn from the instruc- 
tions given how to take a photograph." 

CHRISTIAN. 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (6d. Perken, Son and Rayment, !»9, Hatton 
Garden.) This is a valuable and cheap little book, which all tyro-amateur photographer* 
would do well to peruse carefully before investing in apparatus, as they may thus save 
considerable expense." 

ENGINEER.' 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography,' showing how to buy a caaiera and how to use 
it. (Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment.) This is a useful little book, probably the cheapest 
published, but at the same time satisfactory as a concise guide to amateurs. It contains 
practical hints on apparatus, and clear explanations of the methods of taking and developing 
photographs, on enlarging and on reducing, on the producing of lantern slides, and 
instructions on the materials required. It is illustrated, and may be recommended to any 
beginner." 

PHOTOGRAPHY. 

•' ' The Beginner's Guide to Photography,' Perken, Son and Rayment, l»y, Hatton 
Garden, London, E.G. This little manual is one of the most clearly written beginner's 
books in the market. If any of our tyro readers want to pick up a few wrinkles they will 
find a wonderfully lucid instructor in the ' Beginner's Guide." 

BUILDING NEWS. 

" Architects desirous of becoming their own photographers will do well to invest in the 
sixpenny 'Beginner's Guide to Photography,' published by Messrs. Perken, Son and 
Rayment, of 09, Hatton Garden. It is the most complete and practical cheap handbook of 
the art we have seen." 

CITIZEN. 

" 'The Beginner's Guide to Photography,' (Od. ; Perken, Son and 'Rayment, Hatton 
Garden) is a remarkably useful little volume which gives to the amateur photographer brief 
and concise directions, without those confusing technicalities which characterise most works 
of a similar nature." 

THE MORNING NEWS. 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography.'— This work has been favourably mentioned by 
those organs of the English Press most capable of forming an opinion of its merits. He who 
reads may photograph. The publishers are Perken, Son and Rayment, of 99, Hatton 
Garden. London." 

THE ACADEMY. 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography,' (Perken, Son and Rayment.) There are many 
more expensive books published on photography that do not contain half the real practical 
advice that is to be found in the hundred pages of this little guide. It can be safely relied 
upon by the novice, and covers his requirements from his first purchase of an outfit till he is 
far advanced in the art." 

SPORTSMAN. 

"'The Beginner's Guide to Photograpliy ' (Perken, Son and Rayment, 90, Hatton 
Garden, E.G.) is one of the best and most comprehensive works of instruction to the art 
of manipulating photographic apparatus that we remember to have come across. ' 

SPORTING TIMES. 

" One of the best ' Guides to Photography' is Perken, Son and Rayment's, published 
at sixpence. It really is cheap. You have a description of apparatus, a description of taking 
a photograph, development, printing from the negative, expenditure, and goodness knows, 
what. Send to 09, Hatton Garden, you phoioprapnic beginners. Don't forget the stamps." 



PRESS OPINIONS. 

Third Edition. Beginner's Guide to Photography, ©d.* 

GRAPHIC. 

" The ' Beginner's Guide to Photography ' (Perken, Son and Rayment), by a ' Fellow 
of the Chemical Society,' is a useful little manual for amateur photographers. ^ It con- 
tains brief and concise directions for taking, developirg, and printing the negative, while 
there is a valuable article on that bugbear of all amateurs — Exposure,' by Mr. A. S 
Platts, containing some exceedingly useful exposure tables " 

DAILY NEWS. 

"Under the title of the 'Beginner's Guide to Photography,' by a 'Fellow of the 
Chemical Society,' Perken, Son and Rayment have published a useful handbook for all in- 
terested in the art of photography. An article on ' Exposure,' and some carefully compiled 
exposure tables, by Mr. A. S. Platts, must be of value to all amateurs." 

St. STEPHEN'S REVIEW. 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography,' published by Perken, Son and Rayment, 99, 
Hatton Garden, London. — The fashionable art science, Photography, is most explicitly set 
forth without the confusing technicalities employed in most works on this subject, llie 
difficult matter of ' Choice of Apparatus ' has a chapter devoted to itj in which the special 
advantages of each kind of camera and lens is detailed. Altogether this book may be said to 
be of the greatest value to all who practise photography." 

IliliUST RATED SPORTING & DRAMATIC. 

"The ' Beginner's Guide to Photography. '—With this title a six penny book has been 
published by Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment, of 99, Hatton Garden, which we find both 
simple and practical. By following its instructions carefully the amateur will save much 
disappointment in the sense of blurred pictures, and much expense for spoilt plates." 

MORNING POST. 

"The 'Beginner's Guide to Photography' is one of the best works on this popular 
and fascinating art yet published. The author thoroughly understands his subject- Messrs. 
Perken, Son and Rayment, Hatton Garden, are the publishers." 

WHITEHALL REVIEW. 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (Perken, Son and Rayment.) — This is an excellent 
treatise which all amateurs who have taken up photography as an amusement should peruse." 

ARMY & NAVY GAZETTE, 

"Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment send us the second edition of their 'Beginner's 
Guide to Photography,' a plain and practical handbook as to how to buy and use a camera, 
with many particulars concerning lenses and other matters, for which the publishers are 
celebrated as makers." 

COURT JOURNAL. 

"Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment, one of the largest and most popular makers oi 
photographic apparatus, publish a most useful little work entitled, ' Beginner's Guide 
to Photography,' in which the several operations of taking, developing and printing the 
photograph are described with great clearness, and in a manner suitable to those wlio are 
handling a camera for the first time. While those who have not yet provided themselves 
with the necessary apparatus cannot do better than peruse the valuable chapter on ' The 
Choice of Apparatus,' and patronise this firm for their purchases." 

JEWELLER & METALWORKER. 

" ' Beginner's Guide,' published by Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment, of 99, HattOD 
Garden, at the small sum of six pence. It is a work which can be relied upon, and the 
language of it is easy of comprehension, a great merit in works of this description." 

ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS. 

'The 'Beginner's Guide to Photography,' published by Messrs. Perken, Son and 
Rayment, of Hatton Garden, treats clearly and concisely of the apparatus and requirements 
necessary to engage in the delightful pastime of photography, and will be found most useful 
to amateurs." 

LADY'S PICTORIAL. 

'"Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (Perken, Son and Rayment, 'Optimus.*) 
Revised and enlarged edition, 6d. It is clear and explicit, quite free from unnecessary and 
confusing technicalities. I can safely recommend this little work to any of our readers who 
contemplate taking up photography." 

ENGLISH MECHANIC. 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography.' Messrs. Perken, Son aid Rayment, of HaUoD 
Garden, have issued a second edition of this useful little work, which has already reached a 
very large sale." 



BEGINNER'S GUIDE 

TO 

PHOTOGRAPHY; 

SHOWING 

HOW TO BUY A CAMERA 
AND HOW TO USE IT. 

INCLUDING PRACTICAL REMARKS UPON 

PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS GENERALLY— HOW TO 
TAKE A PHOTOGRAPH— DEVELOPMENT— PRINTING 
FROM THE NEGATIVE — TAKING INSTANTANEOUS 
PICTURES— PRODUCING LANTERN SLIDES— PHOTO 
MICROGRAPHY AND ENLARGING. 

BY 

A FELLOW OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY. 



PUBLISHED BY 

PERKEN, SON & PAYMENT, 

99, HATTON GARDEN, LO^DON, E-O. 



CHOICE OF APPARATUS, 



The photographic aspirant will probably find very great 
difficulty in choosing suitable apparatus with which to 
make a commencement. He will see by varioas adver- 
tisements that apparatus can be purchased at greatly 
differing prices. Passing by those makers who profess 
to supply everything necessary for two or three shillings 
— and at once relegating them and their wares to the 
toy-shop — we next come to complete sets sold at two 
or three guineas. For about this sum a complete set 
of apparatus can be had of the type shown at page 114. 
The items include a camera and its belongings, the 
necessary chemicals, a red lamp, a dozen gelatine plates, 
and many other requisites. It is the kind of set which 
would be very suitable to place in the hands of an 
intelligent youth — and moreover, it will produce good 
pictures if landscapes — pure and simple — be the only 
ones attempted. It is furnished with a cheap form of 
lens which is only suitable for this class of work; but 
it is a lens which will do this work as efficiently as 
others which are far more expensive. But it is only 
right to mention th^.t the higher priced lens will do for 
^ other more advanced pictures as well. This form of 
, " single lens," as it is called, is described in the Chapter 
upon lenses. 

He who wishes to excel in the Art of Photography 
must furnish himself with apparatus of a somewhat 
more advanced type, and — as in many other pursuits — 
his wants must be regulated by the length of his purse. 
For a ten-pound note, or thereabouts, he can obtain a 
camera, lens, and stand, which will produce for him 
pictures which he will not be ashamed to show to his 

E 2 



4 CHOiee OF APPARATUS. 

friends. If his means are limited, he will do best td 

commence with a small camera. That size known as 

half-plate ia a very good one for a beginner. There is' 

not a very great difference in the price of this sized. 

camera, and the one next size larger to it, for the 

workmanship in both is of much the same value. The 

inexperienced buyer may, therefore, be tempted to pay 

the higher sum to secure the larger camera. But he 

must remember ihat the larger sized camera entails 

larger sized gelatine plates, larger quantities of chemicals, 

and larger everything else. Indeed he is in the position 

of a man who has the choice of buying a large and a 

small house, without there being very much difference 

in the purchase monv'-y of either. IF a wise man, he 

will first count the cost of keeping up the larger house 

before he decides upon having it. We will new append 

a list of the various sizes of photographic cameras, each 

size given denoting the size cf the picture which the 

camera will give. We also state against each size tiic 

price per dozen of the gelatine plates upon which the 

pictures are taken : — 

Camera giving 

pictures of the 

undermentioncJ Cost of 

iize in inches. gelatine plates. 

1 V «i I generally known as ] r , ,, i 

4i X 3i- <^ ° 1 • ' i^om i;-to I Q per doz. 

^* •'^ \ quaitcr-plate size ) ' "' ^ 

5^4 ' M i/7 » ?/- ,, 

6| X 3^ Stereoscopic size ... ,, 2/2 ,, 4/6 ,, 

^2 ^ 44 Half pla'.c size .... „ 2/3 „ 4/6 ., 

7| X 4i ,, 2/10 „ 5/6 n 

7i X 5 ,, 3/5 » 6/. „ 

8X5 » 3/lO» 7/- ;, 

8^ X t\ Whole plate ... „ 4/3 „ 7/6 ., 

9x7 „ 5/- „ 10/- „ 

10 X 8 „ 7/3 ,,12/6 „ 

12 X 10 „ 10/6 „ 16/- „ 

15 X »2 „i8/- ,,28 - „ 

Those who arc fortunate in being so placca that they 



CHOICE OF APPARATUS. ^ 

have no need to study economy in such a matter, cannot 
do better than purchase a camera of a good medium 
size — such as 8| X 6J, or lo X 8. Or perhaps the 
wiser plan would be to commence with a smaller size, 
and adopt the larger one later on. There is another 
alternative. A large camera can be bought in the first 
instance, and the dark slides, or double backs for holding 
the plates, can be fitted by the vendor with carriers to 
hold small-sized gelatine plates. The operator can then 
use these small plates until proficient, and can afterwards 
relinquish the carriers, and use plates the full size of the 
apparatus. Adopting this plan, his experimental pictures 
— with their faulty results — will not cost him very 
much. 

There are one or two points which should be looked 
for in a good camera. In the first place it should be 
rigid when set up on its stand, so that it will not vibrate 
with every breeze. In the next place, its parts should 
be so arranged that it will not only pack up into a small 
compass for travelling, but that it will readily unpack. 
Some makers sacrifice everything to extreme lightness ; 
their cameras are wonders of mechanical skill, but are 
generally wanting in rigidity, arc easily broken, and have 
loo many complications. 

A capital form of camera is that shown at page in. 
The first picture is a front view of the instrument, 
with its board as yet unpierced for the lens. It will 
be seen that the front of the instrument can be moved 
up and down, or from right to left. It has a leather 
bclbws body — an indispensable feature of all first class 
cameras — of such a length that long focus lenses can 
be employed as well as those of short focus. This is 
a most important point, the value of which will soon 
become evident to the operator. The focussing, or 
lengthening and shortening of this bellows body is 
brought about by the side screw knob shown at the 
bottom of the figure which works a pinion over a racly 
giving an ejcact adjustment, 



6 CHOICE OF APPARATUS. 

Referring \,o\v to the back elevation (page iii), we 
notice that the back can be swung in any direction. 
The instrument possesses not only the usual swing 
back, as it is called, but has a side swing as well. At 
the top of the back will be noticed two screw knobs 
with milled heads. These knobs are at the ends o-f 
rods which pass right through the framework of the 
camera to the base board below. By loosening these 
the back can be placed at any required angle, and by 
tightening them that angle is rigidly preserved as long 
as may be necessary. 

A still more compact camera is shewn at page i lo. 
This form possesses all the advantages of that just 
described, but its movements are simplified in such a 
manner that it can be unfcjded, and made ready for 
taking a picture in the space of a very few seconds. 
This camera is of square section, but is made to take 
the usual standard sizes of plates. The object of 
making it square, is that the back may be reversed if 
necessary. In the older forms of cameras, if it were 
desired to take a picture on the long diameter of the 
plate, as in the case of a full length portrait for instance, 
it was necessary to unscrew the camera from its stand, 
and screw it up again so that it rested on its side. 
A screw hole was always provided for this purpose. 
The operation not only consumed some time, but it was 
awkward in the extreme, to use the instrument in an 
unaccustomed position. In the camera under discussion 
this is obviated by making the back reversible, and it 
can be reversed in about 4 seconds. We can thus 
obtain horizontal, or vertical pictures at will, and change 
and change about with the greatest celerity, while the 
camera remains fixed to the tripod stand. This camera 
illustrates a new adjunct which must not pass unnoticed. 
It shows a patent focussing screen that can be fitted to 
any camera, which will slide in and out, so that it can 
be adjusted to the focussing position of any dark slide, 
roll-holder, or other contrivance which may be invented 



CHOICE OF APPARATUS. 7 

for taking negatives on paper, and other material. There 
are at present several roller slides or holders in the mar- 
ket which are used for producing pictures — panorama 
fashion — on long bands of paper. These contrivances 
are at present on their trial, and it is impossible to say 
whether they will or will not partly supersede the use 
of glass for photographic work. Should they prove to 
be as successful as their promoters believe they will, the 
purchaser of one of these cameras with its adjustable 
focussing screen, can march with the times without 
relinquishing his old apparatus. Any roll holder can be 
readily fitted to a camera with this adjunct. This camera 
may be folded up into a marvellously small compass for 
travelling. 

In page iii is shown a camera of another description, 
known as The Universal, which is intended for port- 
raiture in the studio, or silting room. Now, thanks to 
dry plates, most excellent portraits can be, and are 
constantly taken in private rooms. The camera in 
question is of a more solid description than those pre- 
viously described, and has a fixed base. The focussing 
screw is placed at the back immediately underneath the 
ground glass screen, and the camera has a repeating 
back, an arrangement by which two portraits in 
different positions can be taken upon one plate. 

The camera depicted at page 126 does not call for any 
special remark, but it illustrates two accessories which 
are worihy of mention, and which are used for taking 
instantaneous pictures. The one is a "view finder" 
placed on the top of the instrument, and the other is 
an instantaneous shutter, to be presently more fully 
described, which covers the lens aperture. These valu- 
able additions can be fitted to any form of camera. The 
object of the view finder is to give a reduced image of 
the same picture which falls upon the sensitive plate 
directly exposure is made. In taking a picture of a 
moving object, such as a chip in full sail, it is all 
important that that object should fall in its right place 



8 CHOICE OF APPARATUS. 

in the composition, so that an harmonious picture may 
result. The operator can secure this end by watching 
the image in the view finder. Dh-ectly the moving 
object gets into the best position with regard to the 
other elements of the picture, the instantaneous shutter 
is released, and in the twinkling of an eye the picture is 
taken. The other cameras figured do not require any 
description, but we may notice a useful type of quarter 
plate instrument, with its three double backs and leather 
case, page 112, which is peculiarly fitted for the tourist, 
who does not require large pictures. A still smaller 
instrument is made for those interested in the Magic 
Lantern, its double dark slides carry plates 3^ square, 
the usual size for lantern slides. The weight bulk of 
this camera is quite inconsiderable. 

A camera which is rigid and firm in all its parts is of 
little avail unless it be mounted on a stand having the 
same qualities. Figs, on page 1 19 show different forms of 
stands in which these characteristics are carefully 
preserved. In this page the stand is shown extended 
ready for the reception of the camera, and is also shown 
closed and strapped up for transport. The way in 
which the legs fold up is also well shown ; and it may 
be observed that each leg can be readily shortened at 
will without shifting the camera. This is an important 
advantage, especially when the operator is obliged to 
place his apparatus on uneven ground. The rigidity of 
these tripod stands is ensured in setting them up for use 
by utilizing the natural elasticity of the wood. In spite 
of their light weight — the smaller sizes weighing less 
than 3 lbs., a weight of 56 lbs. can be suspended from 
the centre of the triangular top without causing any 
undue strain upon the various parts. The camera is 
in all cases attached to the stand by a brass thumb- 
screw, which is supplied with the apparatus. 

An ingenious improvement in portable stands has 
recently been devised. It is styled "Rayment's Patent" 
tripod top (see page 126). This, instead of being 



' CHOICE OF APPARATUS. 9 

made in one piece as such tops usually are, is in two 
pieces, one above the other. In the lower portion a 
sliding board runs, which is hinged to the upper half; 
this enables the camera %:> be turned instantaneously on 
its side for the purpose of taking upright pictures. By 
using the sliding piece already described, the camera is 
brought central over the legs of the tripod, the structure 
remaining perfectly rigid. Another advantage gained 
by this contrivance is, that by turning the camera when 
fixed by the T screw to the tripod top, so that the lens 
points upwards, photographs may be readily secured of 
the beautiful ceilings to be found in many of our ancient 
and modern buildings, thus meeting a want often 
experienced. 

Again, should a drawing, map. or other such design 
require to be copied, it can be easily accomplished by 
reversing the position just described and pointing the 
lens downwards towards the floor, where the object is 
spread out between the legs of the tripod. 

Before describing the various operations involved in 
producing a photographic picture, we may call attention 
to one more very necessary piece of apparatus, namely, 
the red lamp. It is a fortunate thing for photography 
that the chemicals employed, although so sensitive to 
white light that a picture can be obtained in the smallest 
fraction of a second of time, are insensitive, or nearly so, 
to red rays of light. Were it otherwise, photography 
would be almost an impossibility — unless men were 
gifted with the power of seeing in darkness. As it is, 
the operator conducts all his work — except the business 
of actually taking the picture — by red light. The 
professional has, of course, his dark room, in which the 
daylight is filtered through some kind of ruby medium. 
But to carry on .work at night — or away from home, 
when plates have to be changed, and even developed in 
out-of-the-way cupboards or cellars — a red lamp is a 
sine qua non. The form of lamp shown at page 121 
presents a great many advantages. It possesses a powerf ui 



lb CHOICE OF APPAR'AT'JS. 

paraffin lamp, so arranged that the oil receptacle is 
isolated from the flame, and cannot get heated. It has 
a sliding door at the back, so constructed with guarded 
loopholes that plenty of air can get in and out, but no 
ray of white light can steal outside. In front are two 
large panes of ruby glass. 

A less expensive form of lamp is made (this is the 
lamp shown in the set at page 121 J, in which two sides of 
the lamp are of metal, and the third of red glass. The 
metal sides are hinged together so that they will fold 
up for travelling, with the ruby glass protected from 
fracture by lying between them. Top and bottom 
triangular pieces — one forming a candle holder, and the 
other a chimney — complete this clever little arrangement. 

Wc may in this connection also notice a portable tent 
which has been very lately introduced, and which may 
rightly be regarded as the latest novelty in the world of 
photography. It is shaped like an umbrella, and is 
known as the " Patent Eclipse Ruby Tent." Like an 
umbrella, it folds up in very small space, 30 x 3 inches, 
and can be set up for plate changing or developing pur- 
poses as easily as its well-known prototype. It is shown 
at page 1 15. Made of two thicknesses of material, canary 
color under ruby or black, no light can enter it except 
through its window of ruby fabric. It is unnecessary 
to use a ruby lamp. Daylight, or the light from an 
ordinary lamp or candle placed outside the tent, shining 
through the ruby and canary materials of which it is 
made amply illuminates the interior. The head and 
hands are introducea so that the operator, either at 
home or abroad, sitting in a chair, can conveniently 
watch the progress of his work whilst the tent rests on 
the table. For the summer tourist such a tent is indis- 
pensable ; but for general use it represents a distinct 
gain to the photographer, being very preferable to the 
stufly cupboards often employed as makeshifts for dark 
rooms by beginners. 



II 



PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES, 



The most simple form of camera lens, is that known as 
the single view lens. In reality it does not consist of a 
single piece of glass, but of two, sometimes three 
cemented together, so as to appear, when examined, to be 
one glass. It is a most valuable lens when used for 
landscape (see page 109), but owing to the defect which 
it has of slightly distorting any straight lines near the 
margin of the picture, it cannot be used — except with 
certain precautions — for architectural subjects. It is 
supplied with the cheaper sets of apparatus, and will 
afford very fine pictures, if kept to its own particular 
class of work. 

A more expensive lens, and the form used more 
commonly than any other, is the rectilinear (sec page 108), 
which, as its name tells us, gives lines free from 
distortion. This lens might be termed the sheet anchor 
of the photographer. It will do for landscape, for archi- 
tecture, for portraiture, for copying, and for enlarging. 
It is also the best lens to employ for instantaneous 
pictures. It consists of two achromatic lenses of pre- 
cisely similar pattern, placed in a tube with their 
concave surfaces facing one another. Between them is 
a slit for the insertion of stops or diaphragms of varying 
size. A great advantage in the use of this form of lens 
is, that one lens can be removed and the other employed 
as a single lens, under which circumstances it gives an 
image double the size of that afforded by the complete 
arrangement. At the same time the camera must be 
opened out to double its former length. In choosing a 
camera^ ^herelorc, this power of extension should not 
bg lost sight ol» 



12 PHOTOGR.APHIC LENSES. 

In the wide angle doublet, or portable symmetrical 
lens (see psge io8), we also have a combination of two 
lenses. This form of lens is especially valuable for 
taking subjects in confined situations, for it will include 
in the picture it gives, a great deal more than would a 
lens of longer focus. It is for this reason well adapted 
for pourtraying interiors of buildings, where the camera 
muse be placed in comparative close proximity to the 
subject to be taken. It is also valuable for copying. 

The portrait lens (page 109), is the most rapid of all 
lenses^ for it was devised at a time when the chemical 
part of the art was backward, and when every effort had 
to be made on the part of the optician to lessen the 
time of exposure. It takes excellent portraits with the 
rapid plates now in the market, it can be used for 
copying, enlarging, or as an objective for the lantern. 
It is, therefore, a useful tool in the hands of an 
intelligent worker. At the same time it will not do for 
landscape photography. He who is limited to the pur- 
chase of one lens, should get one of the rectilinear form. 
He can afterwards add to his stock as opportunity offers, 
with the certainty that every additional lens will give 
him increasing power over King Sol. We may call 
special attention to a make of lenses stamped with the 
word '* Optimus." As that name implies, they arc 
among the best in the market. 

A lens is now constructed (page 107) the rapidity of 
which nearly approaches that of the Portrait Lens, whilst 
for definition and depth of focus it is superior. This in- 
strument is known as the " Euryscope '' and possesses a 
working aperture of F 6. It is well suited for both 
portraits and landscape photographs, and for copying and 
enlarging is unsurpassed. 

A wide-angle form of Euroscope working at F9.50 is also 
to be obtained (page 107). It is a most difficult lens to 
m^kCf but is scarcely to be ccjuallei for general utility. 



'3 



TAKING A PHOTOGRAPH, 



The operations involved in taking a photograph may be 
roughly grouped under two heads. Firstly, the optical 
part of the business, and secondly, the chemical part. 
Luckily these two divisions can now be kept quite 
separate and distinct from one another, so that the 
amount of impedimenta which the operator takes into 
the field with him, where the first part of the process 
is executed, is but a small portion of the necessaries 
required in taking a photograph. Things were indeed 
different in the old days of wet collodion plates. The 
traveller had then to carry all his stock of chemicals 
with him, for unless the chemical part of the process 
followed immediately upon the exposure of the sensitive 
plate in the camera, that plate would be inevitably 
spoilt. Now, thanks to dry plates, the travelling 
photographer is quite independent of his bottles, 
chemicals, and dishes. These are left at home until 
opportunity occurs when he can introduce them to the 
plates which he has exposed in his camera during his 
walks abroad. 

The interval which occurs between the two operations 
of exposure and development may be a few hours, or 
may be extended to weeks or months. The writer has 
often during a photographic tour extending over many 
weeks, left the development of his plates until long 
after returning to his home, and has seldom found his 
pictures to suffer by being left uncared for so long. 
But he by no means recommends this practice, for a 
slight accident may spoil a negative, and the mischief 
is not found out until the owner is so far away that 
another negative taken at the same spot is quite out bf 



14 TAKING A PHOTOGRAPH. 

the question. Let him cite a case in point. He was 
staying not long ago on the South Coast, some few miles 
from Dover, He paid a visit to this town chiefly for 
the purpose of taking various parts of the old castle, 
and pictures of certain evidences of the Roman occu- 
pation of Britain, which abound in the place. From 
one particular point he obtained a splendid view of the 
old fortress, and was fortunate in having a lens with 
him, which just included on his focussing screen the 
entire view. He took this picture, and followed it by 
one of the old Pharos which crowns the hill upon 
which Dover Castle stands. He attached quite as much 
importance to the one picture as to the other. Luckily 
he happened to developc his plates on this occasion 
while still in the neighbourhood, and found to his 
intense disgust, that Dover Castle was hopelessly 
jumbled up with the old Roman light-house. He had 
taken both views on one plate. The accident was soon 
remedied at the cost of another day's work, and a climb 
with the apparatus up to the top of the Castle hill. 
Such a mishap as this can be easily avoided by a simple 
precaution. The photographer should carry with him 
a few strips of gummed paper, which he can get lor 
the asking at any post-office. When a plate has been 
exposed, gum a piece of this paper across the corner of 
the shutter which covers it, so that that shutter cannot 
again be withdrawn without breaking the paper. A 
memorandum of the subject can also be scribbled with 
a pencil across the gummed slip. With these few 
words of caution respecting a difficulty into which it is 
very easy to fall, we will now enumerate as briefly 
as possible the necessary precautions to observe in 
taking a picture. 

Let the first attempt be made of a view from a win- 
dow, if it be only chimney pots. Set the camera up on 
its stand, uncover the lens and focus the picture as 
sharply as possible on the ground glass screen provided 
for the purpose. The focussing cloth is thrown over 



TAKING A PHOTOGRAPH. I 5 

the head during the operation, and should well cover the 
camera as well. It is not a bad plan to have attached 
to the focussing cloth a little elastic loop, which will go 
over tl^e lens in front. After the view is focusscd, put 
in one of the stops or diaphragms provided with the 
lens, and notice how the aspect of the picture on the 
ground glass is modified. It is not so bright as it was, 
but the details are much sharper than they were before. 
Use, say, the smallest stop but one ; and until experience 
teaches more familiarity with the camera and its' 
belongings, use no other. 

When the view is focussed to satisfaction, cap the 
lens, throw the ground glass screen out of its pLice, and 
retire to the dark room. Here, by the dim light of the 
red lamp, take a couple of plates out of their containing 
box, and put them in one of the double backs, taking 
care that as the back lies opch like a book in front of 
you, that the film, or dull side of the plates is placed 
downwards. Avoid touching the surface of the plates 
with the fingers ; but brush them over with a flat 
camel's hair brush kept for the purpose, before inserting 
the plates in the double back. Close up the plate box, 
as well as the double slide, and take the latter to the 
camera. Insert the double back in the groove provided 
for it, cover the camera with the focussing cloth, and 
placing your hand underneath, carefully draw the shutter 
of the slide. Your gelatine plate is now ready for 
exposure, and when the cap of the lens is removed the 
light will act upon it. Remove the cap for, say, three 
seconds, and immediately replace it. You may now 
reverse the double back, and take another picture, this 
time letting it have five seconds* exposure. When the 
two plates are afterwards developed and finished, it will 
be seen which negative has the brighter appearance, 
and the power of the lens, as well as the rapidity of the 
plates employed, can be judged accordmgly. One more 
word about exposure. Get a note-book, and note at 
€rst, the details of every exposure made ; such as time 



l6 TAKING A PHorodRAPrt. 

of day, time of year, state of the weather, and so on* 
By studying this book, side by side with the negatives 
to which it refers, a great deal may be learnt. Correct 
exposure is the most important part of the business of 
photography, and is a thing which can only be learnt by 

i constant practice and attention to details. 

^ It is quite impossible to write down anything definite 
. with regard to the length of time for which the lens 

/ must be uncovered. If we had only one particular 
subject to photograph, and this subject were always 
lighted by the same amount of daylight, it would be an 
easy matter to calculate the amount of exposure required 
with every diaphragm of a lens, provided that the 
necessary amount had been ascertained by experiment 
with but one of those diaphragms. For these stops or 
diaphragms, as furnished with modern lenses, have 
apertures bearing a definite relation to one another. 
As a general rule each diaphragm will require double 
the exposure needed for the next size larger. Or to 
put it in another way — suppose the smallest stop of a 
lens to require an exposure of 24 seconds with a given 
subject, with the next size larger the exposure will be 
12, then 6, then 3, then 1 1, until we come to the full 
aperture of the lens, by which the picture can be taken 
in J of a second. But as a matter of fact, the exposure 
varies not only with the nature of the subject, but with 
the time of day, the time of year, and the state of the 
atmosphere. The old adage, ^^ Experientia docef" can- 
not be more aptly quoted than in connection with this 
question of exposure. 

As a rough guide to the worker a table is appended 
by which he may learn the very great difference there 
is in the exposure required for different subjects. Let 
us suppose that he is working with a gelatine plate or 
average sensitiveness, and is using a medium sized stop. 
For the reasons given above, such a table can only be 
regarded as a hint to workers — not as an infallible 
guide. It must be read in conjunctioi^ with what hai 



TAKING A PHOTOGRAPH. 



17 



been already said with regard to time of day, state or 
atmosphere, etc. 

The medium stop of a rectilinear lens will require 
the varying exposures noted below : — 



A sec. 


Sky and Sea. 


^ sec. 


Open Fields. 


I to 2 sees. 


Landscape 

with trees 

close at hand. 


3 sees, up to 
3 or more 
minutes. 


Under trees, in 
woods and forests. 


10 minutes. 


Interior of rooms, 
well lighted. 


^-an-hour 
to 2 hours. 


Interiors badly 

lighted, or 

artificially lighted. 



In making out this short table, the writer — who has 
worked for years with one description of lens, and 
one description of dry plate — has relied solely upon 
observations noted in his own practice. In the next 
Chapter we shew how the exposed plates can be 
developed. 



i8 



DEVELOPMENT. 



A Photographic beginner will be apt to imagine that 
if a plate has been exposed in the camera, that it will 
at once bear an image of the subject upon which it has 
been exposed, and he will probably be surprised when 
he is told that the plate bears exactly the same appear- 
ance after that operation which it did before. But all 
the same, a change has taken place, and an important 
change too, but as yet it is invisible. The plate now 
bears, what is commonly called, a latent image, but this 
image only becomes visible under the operation, called 
development. 

There are several different methods by which a 
gelatine plate can be developed, but it is a safe rule to 
adopt the formula recommended by the makers of the 
particular plates used. It is the invariable custom for 
makers of plates to issue with them plain directions 
for their development, but as these instructions are 
necessarily brief, we will endeavour to explain in detail 
the various operations necessary. We will also give 
one or two different formulae wh'ch will be found to 
produce good negatives with most of the plates now 
sold. 

First of all we will describe the method most com- 
monly in vogue in this (Country, and which is known 
as alkaline development. The chemicals required are 
the following, which should be purchased of some 
reliable dealer in photographic requisites : — 

Pyrogallic Acid, 

Liquor Ammonia ( 880), 

Bromide of Potassium, 

Alum, 

Hyposulphite of Soda* 



DEVELOPMENT. I9 

It will be of some assistance to the beginner if we 
make one or two remarks with reference to these 
chemicals. Pyrogallic acid is a snow-white woolly 
powder, so light that a one ounce bottle of it would 
contain about twelve ounces of water. One ounce, 
costing about sixteen pence, is sufficient for developing 
many dozens of small pictures, for only about three 
grains arc required for each plate, and the ounce contains 
437 grains. This chemical is very poisonous, and it 
stains the fingers. But the fingers never need come 
into contact with it, if our directions are followed. 
A bone mustard spoon should be kept for the purpose 
of taking it out of its containing bottle. 

Liquor Ammonia '880 is the strongest solution of 
Ammonia that can be purchas'^^d. It quickly loses 
strength by exposure to the air, indeed it is not too 
much to say that it loses strength every time the stopper 
is removed from the bottle. For this reason only a 
small quantity should be purchased at a time, just 
sufficient to make up the formula required. The heat 
of the hand on the bottle is quite enough to sei/.' ff 
Ammonia in the form of gas, and for this reason me 
stopper should always be tied down, except when in 
actual use. Some adopt the plan of mixing the 
Ammonia at once with its bulk of water, and allowing 
for the addition in making up formulae. But the best 
plan is to purchase just sufficient for present need. 

Bromide of Potassium is in crystals, and is a stable 
compound. One ounce will be quite sufficient to begin 
with. 

Alum (powdered). We recommend the reader to 
put a pound of it in a half gallon bottle, and to keep 
the bottle always full of water, adding water every 
time the bottle is drawn upon. This can be done 
until all the alum disappears from the bottom of the 
bottle, when more must be added. By this plan the 
water in the bottle will always be saturated, that is to 
say, it will contain as much alum in solution as it can hold 

€ 3 



20 



DEVELOPMENT. 



Hyposulphite of Soda, which we will call hereafter 
" Hypo." for short, should be kept in a stone jar, in a 
dry place. While a most useful and indispensable salt 
in its proper place, it is a thing to be dreaded by the 
photographer should it get out of that place. Fingers 
which have touched "Hypo." must not touch plates, 
dishes, or anything else in the photographer's list until 
they have been well washed. The hypo, dish must be 
used for hypo, and nothing else. Indeed we may go 
further than this, and recommend that one particular 
dish should be used for each solution required. 

The necessaries for developing beyond these chemicals 
comprise : — 

Three dishes, 

A good supply of water, 

Scales and weights, 

A graduated glass measure, 

A developing cup or glass. 
2>ish No. I is reserved for the developing solution, to be 
prese^^tly described. Dish No. 2, placed near it, is to 
cont. . a few ounces of the alum solution taken from the 
ctock bottlf. Dish No. 3 — which may conveniently be 
double the size of the others, so as to be distinctive, and 
to h'dvo the further advantage of containing two plates 
at the same time — is for the hypo, solution — (hypo. 
2^ ounces, water -J pint). This dish, for the reason 
already given, may be placed at a respectful distance 
from the others. These dishes will then be placed on a 
table in front of the operator in the following order : — 




Developing 
Dish. 



We will now proceed to develope a plate, which we 
will suppose to have received the proper amount of 
exposure in the camera. Let us also suppose it to be ^ 



DEVELOPMENT. 21 

landscape subject, consisting of a liberal amount ot sky, 
a few trees, and a foreground. Mix up the following 
solution, and place it in a small stoppered bottle, from 
which it can readily be poured drop by drop. It may 
be regarded as a stock solution, and will keep well if 
stoppered when not in use : — 

Bromide of Potassium ... ... 2 drachms. 

Water ... ... ... ... 4 ounces. 

Liquor Ammonia ... ... 2 ounces. 

Let this bottle be labelled with a large A which can 
easily be discerned in the dim light of the dark room. 
The A will stand for accelerator, for this solution has 
the property of quickening the action of the developer. 
On the label, too, may be written the formula of the 
solution. This is a most convenient custom, and should 
be observed with all bottles in the laboratory. 

We now proceed to spoon out 3 grains of pyrogallic 
acid into the developing cup. The first time or two 
wc take the trouble to weigh out that quantity, but 
afterwards we can easily guess the amount by its bulk. 
Adding to this 2 ounces of water, we see that the pyro. 
quickly dissolves. Now add 4 drops of solution A, and 
the developer is ready. This amount of developer is 
quite sufficient for a 5 X 4 plate, particularly if the 
developing dish be of flat vulcanite, and of a size suitable 
to the plate developed. Of course if a large dish be used 
for a small plate, more developer must be needed to 
cover that plate. And the plate must be covered too, 
or stains are likely to result. 

Taking the exposed plate from its double back, and 
keeping it at a safe distance from the red light, we place 
it in its dish, film side upwards, and immediately empty 
upon it the contents of the developing cup. This must 
be done in such a way that the liquid flows over the 
glass plate in one even wave. We may now put the 
cup aside and watch the gradual growth of the photo- 
graphic image on the gelatine plate. This is always a 
pleasant, and most interesting sight. The plate when 



tt DEVELOPMENT. 

first wetted has a cream-colored surface, although it 
looks red enough under the light with which we are 
now working. No change occurs at once, but presently 
we see that part of the plate is rapidly darkening, while 
the extreme edges — which have been protected in the 
camera by the rebate of the dark slide — remain white as 
before. The darkening goes on, and now we see that 
the foliage of the trees — quite white — is projected upon 
the blackness. We recognize the dark part of the 
picture as the sky. It is the brightest thing in the 
landscape, and therefore it has had the greatest effect 
upon the sensitive surface in the camera, blackening a 
portion of that surface to a greater extent than could 
the light rays from any other part of the composition. 
But the picture is not only black and white : for now 
we find that silvery half-tones are making their 
appearance. These are found on the markings of the 
tree trunks, the various shades on a lichen-covered stone 
wall, and other objects. Still watching the gradual 
development of the picture, the action seems to hang 
fire a little. Now is the time to look to our accelerator 
(A solution) for further help. But we must not pour 
any direct into the dish, or it would have undue action 
on ©ne part of the plate, and the negative would 
probably be spoilt. We therefore drop into the 
developing cup 6 drops of the solution, or thereabouts ; 
empty the developer upon it, and immediately return 
the whole of the mixture to the dish. The effect upon 
the picture is rapid. It quickly gains in strength, and 
unless care be taken the picture may be made too dense 
by allowing the action to go too far. The exact time 
when the developing process should be stopped, can 
only be learnt by experience. The beginner can, how- 
ever, judge of the amount of density on the plate, by 
taking it out of the dish and holding it close to the ruby 
light so as to look through it. If indiarubber thumb 
and finger stalls be used, this can be done without soiling 
the hands, (It may be observed here that after the 



DEVELOPMENT. ^^ 

development has commenced, the plate is not nearly so 
sensitive to light as it was before. After, therefore, 
the image has once begun to peep out, development 
may be continued under quite a bright light, provided 
that it is of an orange colour) 

When it is judged that development is complete, and 
when complete there should be very few white places 
discernible upon the plate, the contents of the dish are 
emptied into the sink, and the negative is well flushed 
with water. Plenty of water at this stage, means a good 
clear negative. After this the plate is put into the alum 
dish for about 2 minutes, then it is ready for the fixing 
operation in the hypo : dish. 

Let us for a moment pause to see what this process 
of fixation means. The plate originally consisted of a 
film of bromide of silver mixed with gelatine. Only a 
portion of this bromide has been utilized in making our 
negative, and by the action of the light in tbe camera, 
and subsequent development, this portion has been 
darkened. But by far the larger mass of the film re- 
mains as unaltered bromide of silver ; and by examining 
the back of the developed plate, we can see the cream- 
coloured film almost untouched by the chemicals we 
have been using. This unaltered bromide causes the 
plate not only to be opaque, but if allowed to remain, 
would be infallibly darkened by light in the course of a 
short time. So we must get rid of this bromide of 
silver ; and the best way of doing so is to dissolve it out 
of the film with hyposulphite of soda. We now see 
why this chemical is called the fixing salt, and why it is 
so prejudicial to the other photographic chemicals, 
except in its own proper place. Before putting the 
plate in the fixing bath it should be well rinsed under 
the tap. 

Under the action of the hypo, the plate gradually 
loses its opacity, and becomes darker in appearance. 
It should be left in the fixing bath for a few minutes 
after the last trace of whiteness (bromide of silver) 



24 DEVELOPMENT. 

has disappeared. It is then thoroughly washed under 
the tap, placed in a bath of clean water (which should 
be changed at intervals) for two or three hours, dried 
in a plate rack and the negative is finished. 

The method of development which we have detailed 
is as simple as any, and will be found suitable to any 
plates in the market. Its fault, if it have one, is that 
the pyrogallic acid is used dry, and being of a light 
woolly nature, it is apt to fly about, and contaminate 
other things in the room. Mixed with water alone it 
will only keep good for a few hours. If a good batch 
of plates have to be developed, it is the best plan 
perhaps to mix up the whole quantity of pyrogallic acid 
needed, and to measure off so much for each plate. 
Here is an alternative method of working by which the 
contents of a one ounce bottle of pyrogallic acid can at 
once be made into a solution which will keep good for 
months. In 8 ounces of water put 20 drops of nitric 
acid, and pour the mixture upon i ounce of pyrogallic 
acid. Eight drops of this stock solution will then 
contain i grain of pyrogallic, so that a developer can be 
quickly made up from it. 

Hitherto we have considered only the case of a plate 
which has received the proper amount of exposure in 
the camera. With such a plate all is plain sailing. It 
developes itself as it were, and requires little attention 
beyond watching to see when the action must be 
stopped. But in the hands of a beginner, plates do not 
behave at first in this convenient manner. They arc 
either under or over exposed, and the photographic 
aspirant is at first quite at a loss to know which error 
of these two he has committed. We will endeavour 
to enlighten him. An under exposed plate may be 
looked for after exposure in dull weather, or when the 
camera has been used late in the afternoon, when the 
sun has lost much of its power. If one plate out of a 
batch taken at the same time, and under the same 
conditions, turns out to be under-exposed ; let the other 



DEVELOPMENT. 2^ 

plates be allowed to rest for three weeks or a month 
before they are developed. Strange as it may seem, 
there is a kind of continuing action of the light on a 
plate which has been once exposed, although that plate 
be subsequently kept in darkness. This continuing 
action will cause an under-exposed plate to ripen, so 
that eventually, after a rest like that suggested, it will 
yield a good negative. 

" But how," it may be asked, " is a beginner to know 
whether a plate has been under-exposed." Simply by 
its behaviour under development. The sky will come 
out very slowly, and very little else wijl appear. Dose 
after dose of "accelerator" may be added to the plate, 
but nothing seems to hasten it. If washed and fixed, 
it will consist of nothing but black sky and clear glass. 
Of course this is an extreme case. Under-exposure 
generally may be detected by the slowness with which 
the image makes its appearance, and the hardness of the 
contrasts between the lights and the shadows of the 
picture. There is no remedy for this state of things.' 
The best thing to do under the circumstances, is to 
scratch the film across with the finger-nail, in case the 
operator should be afterwards tempted to print from 
such a production. 

Over exposure is a more common fault, and this is 
fortunate, for the fault can be remedied to a great 
extent during the developing operation. Over-exposure 
is evidenced by the image flashing out on all parts or 
the plate at the same instant. The plate darkens all at 
once, and will speedily become one black mass unless 
a remedy be applied. Should this sudden flashing out 
of the picture occur, at once throw off the developer, 
and flood the plate with water from the tap. Now 
mix up some fresh developer, containing only one- third 
of the usual quantity of ammonia solution, and with a 
few drops of a ten per cent, solution of bromide of 
potassium added. This salt has a restraining action, as 
will be very soon apparent. A bottle containing it 



i6 



DEVELOPMENT. 



should be kept for such emergencies, and should be 
compounded thus : — 

Bromide of potassium, -^ ounce. 
Water . . .5 ounces. 
By such precautions an over-exposed plate may be 
developed into a decent negative. But let it always be 
remembered that nothing is equal to a properly exposed 
plate. An over-exposed one will generally require 
intensifying, a process that will be described later on. 
I Many other alkalies besides ammonia are used with 
pyrogallic acid as a developer, and although ammonia 
is most commonly used, the idea is gaining ground that 
it can be usefully supplanted by some of the others. 
It has the disadvantage of causing a plate to be dis- 
coloured if more than a certain quantity be used, which 
is commonly the case if the development be at all 
forced when under-exposure is being corrected. The 
two alkalies most often used in place of ammonia, are 
the carbonate of soda, and the carbonate of potash. 
We will first of all describe a very good developer 
compounded with carbonate of soda, i.e. common 
washing soda, not the bi-carbonatc, which is often 
miscalled carbonate of soda. In a quart bottle, put 
washing soda ^ lb., and fill up with warm water. Add 
12 grains of bromide of potassium. For use take 
pyrogallic acid as before, pour upon it one ounce of 
water, and one ounce of the soda solution. Here we 
have a developer which yields first-class results. It has 
no smell, and the soda being a stable salt, a large 
Quantity of solution can be mixed at once, for it keeps 
iwell. As in the case of ammonia, the alkali acts as an 
accelerator, and it must be diminished or increased as 
circumstances require. Carbonate of potash has lately 
come into extreme favour under he name of Beach's 
developer ; for the popular way of using it must be 
attributed to Mr. Beach, of New York. The following 
method of making the developer has lately been pub- 
lished in several photographic periodicals, and it gives, 
when so compounded, the very best results. 



2 ounces 
^ ounce 

OLUTION. 

4 ounces 

3 ounces 

3 ounces 
2 ounces 

o solutions keep well. 



DEVELOPMENT. 27 

Make two solutions : — 

No. I. — Pyro. Solution. 
Warm Water ... ... 2 ounces 

Sulphite Soda ... ... 2 ounces 

When cold add 

Sulphurous Acid ... 
Pyrogallic Acid ... 

No. 2. — Potash 

A Water 

Carbonate Potash... 

B Warm Water 
Sulphite Soda 

Combine A and B. These iw 

To developc, add to each ounce of water, i dram 
of No. I Solution, and ^ dram of No. 2 Solution. 
This is weaker than Mr. Beach's formula, and it is 
best to commence developing with a still further dilution 
from two-thip^s as strong, to even one-third, if over- 
exposure be suspected beforehand. 

It cannot be too weak, and, indeed, I take it as a 
good test of the suitability of its strength, if the 
developer begin to act in from half-a-minute to a 
minute. If any earlier signs are visible, the water jug 
must be handy. Quantity is of less consequence than 
promptness. 

j As long as the very slowest progress is being made do 
not add potash, but when action ceases, about ^ dram 
may be added at a time, and in case the developer has 

I had too much of a drenching to check it, then add pyro. 
also. Do n't be impatient if five, or even ten minutes 
are occupied in development. Develope blacker than 
with ammonia, indeed until only the unaffected shades 
can be seen. If the development be too rapid, especially 
at first, a loss of half-tones or intermediate shades will 
result, giving a harsh print showing great contrasts. 
The same developer can be used half-a dozen times, or 



a8 DEVELOPMENT. 

more, for all I know. The secret of success lies in full 
exposure and slow development. If too dense, the 
negative can be reduced without deterioration. The 
mode of doing this will be explained later on. 

So much for alkaline development, which, in one 
form or other, is the most favoured method of rendering 
the latent photographic image visible. We will now 
describe a totally different system, which is little practised 
in this country, but is almost universally used on the 
Continent. It is known as Ferrous Oxalate Develop- 
ment. It has the merit of not staining the fingers, and 
for this reason it should be a favourite with ladies. It 
also possesses the advantage of permitting a dozen or 
more negatives to be developed in the same batch of 
developer. Its disadvantage lies in the difficulty of 
increasing or decreasing its power in cases of over or 
under-exposure. Those who use it, therefore, should 
be careful to make their exposures right. 

Take 

Neutral Oxalate of Potash ... lib. 
Boiling Water... ... ... I quart. 

This solution should be mixed in a basin, and should be 
constantly stirred until all the crystals are dissolved. It 
may then he set aside to cool. When cold, it is ready 
for use, and may be bottled off as a stock solution, to be 
drawn upon when it is desired to develope a few plates. 
For use, take 2 ounces of this stock solution, and add to 
it I dram of protosulphate of iron in powder. Stir for 
a minute with a glass rod, and then add a drop or two 
of your bromide of potash solution. Having washed 
the plate to be developed in a dish of clean water for a 
minute, it can be transferred to a dish containing the 
developer. The action is much slower than in the case 
of alkaline development ; but when once the image 
makes its appearance, it speedily gains density, and 
development may be carried on until nearly the whole 
surface of the plate appears black. The colour of the 
finished negative is not yellow, like an ammonia df 



DEVELOPMENT. 29 

veloped plate, but is black, like one developed with 
potash. One great advantage in this is, that the after 
operation of printing is very much shortened. 

If a negative has become extremely yellow under 
ammonia development, or if it be stained by excess of 
ammonia, a few minutes immersion in the following 
clearing solution will speedily remedy the defect. 
Clearing Solution. 

Alum ... ... ... 2 ounces. 

Citric Acid .c. ... ... I ounce. 

Water ... ^ pint. 

Extreme yellowness is also a legacy often left by the 
carbonate of soda developer. This is better remedied 
by a clearing solution containing iron. The formula is 
as follows : — 

Alum ... ... ... i ounce. 

Citric Acid ... ^ ounce. 

Sulphate of Iron ... ... i^ ounces. 

Water ... ... ... | pint. 

The decolouring property of this solution is remark- 
able, and the negative comes from it with a bloom upon 
it which is a pleasure to behold. The shadows are 
cleared, and the dark portions of the film are turned to 
pearly grey. 

It has been already pointed out that an under-exposed 
negative is not worth keeping. An over-exposed one 
is very often benefitted by the operation known as 
intensification. This is the formula: — 

Mercuric Chloride ... ... i ounce. 

Sal Ammoniac ,,. ... i ounce. 

Water ... ... ... 12 ounces. 

This mixture is a deadly poison, and the bottle con- 
taining it should be kept in some corner where it is 
not likely to be meddled with. A negative can be 
intensified with it long after it has been fixed, washed, 
and dried. In any case the negative to be treated 
should be placed in water to which a little alum has 
been added for some hours previous to the operation. 



3© DEVELOPMENT; 

If any hypo, remains in the film, the mercury will do 
more harm than good. Having taken this precaution, 
immerse the negative in a clean dish, pour upon it 
sufficient of the mercury solution to cover it, and keep 
the dish gently rocking, until the image is perfectly 
bleached. This will take place in about two minutes. 
Now wash the plate most thoroughly under the tap, and 
put it in a bath of the following, which may be kept 
like the mercury as a stock solution : — 

Soda Sulphite ... ... i ounce. 

Water ... ... ... lo ounces. 

In this solution the snow-white image will speedily 
turn black. When the action is complete the negative 
must have a final rinse under the tap, and we can then 
examine it. We shall find that the thin image has become 
dense, and that what before was a mere ghost, although 
possessing plenty of detail, is now a good printable nega- 
tive. Still, let us once more remember that intensification 
is at the best but a makeshift, and that careful exposure 
in the first instance will give a far better result. 

If a negative is so dense that it becomes difficult for 
the light to penetrate it in the after process of printing, 
it has probably been over-developed. It can be easily 
reduced by the following method. Make a saturated 
solution of the red prussiate of potash. Also make up a 
fresh bath of fixing solution (hypo.) of the usual strength. 
Add lo drops of tho former to the latter, and place 
your negative in the mixture. Reduction will immedi- 
ately commence. When it ceases, and if the negative 
should be still too dense, add another lo drops of the 
prussiate and commence afresh. Repeat this again and 
again until the required density is arrived at. 

It now only remains to varnish the negative. This 
should on no account be ommitted if the negative be 
valued. The varnish forms a protecting film to the 
negative which kccp3 out damp and other destructive 
influences. For this operation we require proper varnish, 
an empty dry bottle, and a pneumatic holder. Putting 



DEVELOPMENT. 3 1 

a plate on tl^e holder we gently warm it in front of a 
clear fire. It must be only warm, not hot. Now pour 
a pool of varnish in the centre of the glass and by 
tipping the plate urge it to one corner after the other. 
Pour off the surplus into the dry bottle, rock the plate 
from side to side, hold it in front of the fire until it 
gets thoroughly hot, and the operation is complete. 
The negative is now ready for yielding prints upon 
paper. A description of the process will form die subject 
of our next chapter. 



3« 



PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. 



The work of printing is one in which amateurs as a 
rule do not excel. The reason for this is that it not 
only requires a liberal amount of patience, which in 
these go-a-head times is a virtue not much cultivated, 
but because it comprises a number of operations full of 
little details, each one of which must have careful 
attention. These operations include exposure of sensi- 
tive paper under the negative to daylight ; the toning 
of the positive image thus obtained, its fixation, and 
last but not least, a thorough washing by which the 
fixing salt is thoroughly eliminated. 

The apparatus required is simple. Printing frames, 
one or two dishes, and three large earthenware pans, 
being all che things that arc necessary, beyond a 
plentiful supply of water. Sensitised silver paper can 
now be bought at a very cheap rate, cheaper indeed 
than one can make it, if he only counts the cost of the 
necessary chemicals, to say nothing of the time occupied 
in its preparation which would be considerable. With 
the paper ready to hand, bought in a sensitised condition 
ready for the printing frame, the worker has merely to 
provide himself with the chemicals for toning and 
fixing. For toning he will want a small quantity of 
acetate of soda, or borax, according to the formula which 
he prefers, and a fifteen-grain tube of gold. A tube of 
this size will tone several dozens of small pictures. 
To ensure success in printing — and it is by the general 
brightness and colour of these prints that your com- 
petence as a photographer will be guaged by friends — 



PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. 33 

the greatest care must be taken to keep all solutions 
separate. This is easily done if care be taken to complete 
each portion of the work before the next stage be 
entered upon. Thus the exposures will be made as 
they must be in the daytime, then when the light 
begins to fade the toning may be commenced. When 
this part of the business is complete, and not till then, 
the fixing solution (which is merely a solution of hypo.) 
may be mixed, and the prints submitted to its influence. 
A careless worker who places his toning bath next to his 
fixing bath and allows fingers or splashes to travel from 
one to the other, at once spoils his work. Again, with 
the dishes — one dish should be set apart rigidly for 
toning purposes and should be used for that purpose 
only ; and it is as well, although not quite so important, 
that the fixing salt should have its own particular dish. 
With these preliminary, but by no means unnecessary 
words of caution, we can proceed to give a detailed 
account of the printing operations. 

EXPOSURE IN THE PRINTING FRAME. 

The photographic printing frame is made of wood, 
generally teak, and can be bought in the usual sizes of 
plates. The negative fits into a rebate, and is placed 
in position film side upwards. Upon this a piece of 
sensitive paper previously cut to size, is laid with its 
shiny albumenized surface touching the surface of the 
film. A few folds of clean blotting paper or a pad of 
felt is next placed above the paper, and then the 
hinged back of the printing frame covers up the entire 
arrangement. The two metal springs are now brought 
over and placed in position, and all is ready for exposure 
to the active rays of the sun. The hinged back is so 
arranged that by displacing one of the springs, half of 
the back board can be folded over, and the paper can 
be examined in a dull light so as to watch the progress 
pf printing. 

P 



34 PRINTING FROM TH^ NEGATIVE, 

A. novel kind of printing frame has been recently 
tutroduced which is known as Durnford's printing 
frame. It is shown at page 127. Many will be 
attracted by its small volume, which renders it especially 
valuable to those who prefer to carry their printing 
requisites from place to place with them. It consists 
of a hinged board covered with cloth. At the back, 
not shown in the wood-cuts, are two springs, provided 
at each end with stirrup-shaped catches, which can be 
bent over to clutch the negative placed upon the board. 
The stirrups are furnished with rubber cushions to 
obviate any chance of breaking the glass. A sheet of 
sensitive paper is put between the negative and the 
board. In the cut, one pair of stirrups has been 
released, so that the print can be examined in the 
same way as in the more common form of frame. 

As in the taking of a negative no fixed rule can be 
given as to the time of exposure, but in the one case it 
is a matter of seconds, and in the other it may be a 
question of hours. The time will depend upon the 
density and the colour of the negative, and also upon 
the available light. A black and white negative with 
cool grey half-tones, such as ferrous oxalate gives, will 
print on a favourable day in about fifteen minutes. A 
negative treated by ammonia or soda development, may 
require double that time, for the colour of the film is 
of a less actinic quality. On a dull day, again, the first 
named negative may require an hour's exposure or more, 
and of course the other negative will require under 
the same conditions a proportionate increase in the time 
of exposure. A poor thin negative will never give a 
really good print, but by modyfying the amount of 
light submitted to it, a much better result can be 
obtained than if it were treated as a thoroughly good one. 
Indeed, the amount of light allowed to fall upon the 
pnnting frame must in all cases depend upon the 
nature of the negative. Never must the direct rays of 
the sun be employed unless the negative be of quitQ 



PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. 35 

exceptional density, and when therefore a print cannot 
be otherwise obtained. Diffused daylight must be the 
rule, that is to say, the printing frames must be exposed 
where only the reflected rays from the open sky can 
reach them ; as, for instance, on some support such as 
a window ledge on the shady side of a house. A thin 
negative may be exposed in the same position, but it 
should be protected by a covering of red or yellow 
tissue paper, so that the printing action is rendered 
much slower. The same result can be obtained by 
giving it a long exposure inside a room, at some distance 
from the window. 

In any case the action must be watched by folding back 
the half of the back printing frame as already indicated. 
And in all cases the action should be allowed to con- 
tinue until the print looks far more deeply printed 
than would be desirable in a finished picture. The 
reason of this is, that the image loses much of its force 
in the subsequent operations. 

It is not worth while to undertake the necessary, and 
all times somewhat tedious operations of printing, toning, 
and fixing for one or two pictures, for the work involved 
is much the same if a single print or several dozen arc 
taken in hand at the same time. And although, for 
the sake of simplicity, we will write as if only a single 
print were in question, it must be understood that our 
remarks apply to a batch. Let a fine day be chosen 
for the work, or it will prove tedious indeed, and let 
at least three or four printing frames be employed^ 
according to the number of negatives upon which thcj 
operator is at work. One word more, do not attempt 
to print while other work is going on, or several prints 
will be left to themselves too long, and will be ove'> 
printed. 

TONING. 

When the print is removed from the frame it is d * 
dark red colour, very different from the tint of an 

i> 2 



^6 PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. 

ordinary finished photograph. To correct this, and to 
give it a more pleasing colour, is the object of the 
toning bath. Previous to immersion in this bath, the 
print must be washed in one or two changes of water. 
This need not be done in darkness, but must be done 
in a subdued light, such as would be afforded by a 
room with the blind drawn down. As a further pre- 
caution, the pan in which the print is placed, may be 
covered with a tray, or dark cloth. A ten minutes 
soaking in one pan, a change of water, and a further 
ten minutes will be sufficient. The print will then 
be ready for the toning bath. 

Formula I. 

Acetate of Soda ... ... 20 grains. 

Distilled Water 8 ounces. 

Gold Solution (see under) i drachm. 
For all toning formulae the gold is most conveniently 
used as a solution prepared as follows. Nick the tube 
cf gold in the centre with a fine file, and after breaking 
it between the fingers over a sheet of clean writing 
paper, transfer both gold and broken glass to a two 
ounce bottle containing 15 drachms of distilled water. 
Each drachm of water will then contain one grain or 
chloride of gold. This should be labelled "Gold 
Solution." The quantity of toning solution given 
above, should be sufficient to tone one whole sheet of 
paper, one grain of gold being generally calculated to 
do this amount of toning. Should the cut prints in 
the aggregate amount to more than a sheet, the amount 
of solution must be increased proportionately. The 
toning solution must now be poured into the toning 
dish, and one or two prints immersed therein at a time. 
One print should not be allowed to overlap ano^ther 
while in this bath, or the toning will be unequal. 
The dish should too be occasionally rocked, and the 
prints kept on the move by changing places with one 
another. A change of colour is soon apparent. When 
the prints arc first takcq from their v^abing water they 



PRINTING PkOM THE N£GATlV§. ^7 

are of an ugly brick red tone. This gradually changes 
to crimson, and from crimson to purple. The prints 
should not be removed until every trace of red has 
disappeared. To ascertain when this is the case raise 
the print gently from the solution and look through it. 
The toning operation is conveniently conducted in a 
room with a yellow blind, which can be occasionally 
drawn aside for a moment, in order that the colour of 
the prints may be examined. As each print is finished, 
place it in a pan of water, and supply its place in the 
toning bath by a fresh one. The acetate bath must 
be mixed two days before use. This is important. 
It will keep well, provided that it is placed when not 
in use in a stone bottle, where white light cannot 
reach it. It must be strengthened for subsequent ust- 
by extra gold, the amount of which will depend upon 
the calls made upon it, as already indicated. 

Here is another toning formula, which must be used 
as soon as prepared. It will not keep, but it is useful 
in cases of emergency. 

Bicarbonate of Soda ... 3 grains. 

Water ... ... ... 8 ounces. 

Gold Soluticii ... ... I drachm. 

For warmer tones, the following is recommended :— 

Phosphate of Soda ... 50 grains. 

Water ... ... ... 8 ounces. 

Gold Solution ... ... i drachm. 

The borax toning bath is a general favourite, and it 
seems to work particularly well with ready prepared 
sensitive paper, such as we have recommended the 
beginner to use. Here is the method of preparation. 

In a pint jug place 90 grains of borax, and upon it 
pour 15 ounces (three quarters of a pint) of boiling 
water. Stir with a glass rod until the borax is dissolved. 
Put this solution aside until it has become almost cold, 
then add two drachms of gold solution. If this bath 
be used, and we can most highly recommend it as an 
efficient one, the prints need not be printed so deeply 
as for other toning formulae. .. 



jB ^RlNTlN^G FROM tHE NEGATIVE. 

When all the prints have been duly toned, they 
should be passed through one or two changes of water, 
the toning dish is carefully put away, and we may 
proceed to compound the fixing bath thus : — 
Hyposulphite of Soda ... -Jib. 

Warm Water ... ... i quart. 

Liquor Ammonia ... ... 20 drops. 

This fixing bath is best mixed in a deep dish, and as 
soon as the crystals are dissolved, the toned prints may 
be placed therein, one by one. When all are in, the 
bottom one may be moved to the top, then the next 
one to it may be moved, and so on until they have all 
changed places. This movement allows the solution 
free access to each print in turn. In fifteen minutes 
the fixation should be complete. 

Now comes the washing process, upon the efficiency 
of which permanence of results so much depends. 
Let two large pans of clean water be provided. 
Remove each print separately from the soda solution, 
and place in pan No. i. Then force the mass of prints 
with the open hand to the bottom of the vessel, and 
pour ofi' the water into the sink. Stand the pan on 
its edge for five minutes for the prints to drain. Then 
fill up with fresh water. Now transfer the pictures 
to pan No. 2, and go through the same process. 
Gradually increase the time for which the prints are 
allowed to soak, and finally let them soak in a fresh 
supply of water all night. A further change in the 
morning will finish the washing process. 

The prints may now be dried between folds of clean 
blotting paper, their edges trimmed, and they are then 
ready to be mounted on card, or in an album. 

It is best however to trim the prints before toning, 
because they are best mounted while in a damp state. 
If the trimming be left until after toning, the prints 
must be dried, for they cannot be cut wet, and they 
have again to be damped for mounting. This repre- 
sents therefore a needless waste of time. 



Printing prom the NEGA-nvfi. 39 

The best way to trim prints is to use a glass cutting 
shape sold for the purpose, and to cut upon a piece of 
plate glass. The print is placed face upwards on the 
glass plate, and the cutting glass placed above it. 
Through the upper glass the picture can be seen, and 
care must be taken that any straight lines in it, such as 
will occur in an architectural subject, are parallel with 
the edge of the cutting glass. A sharp knife is now 
run along each side of the cutting glass, and the ragged 
edges of the print are cleanly separated from it. 

The best mounting material is perhaps good starch 
paste used cold. A hog hair stencil brush will break 
up the lumps of paste on the damp paper, and after 
allowing the pasted print to rest for a couple of minutes, 
it may be carefully transferred to the cardboard mount, 
and pressed down with a clean handkerchief. The 
appearance of a mounted photograph is much improved, 
if a double or single line of red ink be drawn with a 
pen all round its edge, at a distance say of a quarter of 
an inch from the margin of the picture. Professional 
photographers always roll their prints after mounting, 
and have a proper press for the purpose. For a small 
sum many will undertake to roll a few prints when 
required to do so. 



40 



INSTANTANEOUS PICTURES. 



One of the most noticeable features of modern 
dry plates is their intense rapidity. When a non- 
photographer reads that certain pictures of trotting 
horses have been taken in the 2,000th part of a second, 
he is apt to smile with incredulity. But he must 
be convinced in spite of himself that there is no 
exaggeration in the statement, if he be shown one of 
the many photographs which have been taken of 
lightning flashes. The duration of time represented 
by a flash of lightning is something infinitely less than 
the 2,000th part of a second. But such pictures are, 
at the best, but scientific curiosities, although they 
prove most conclusively the intensely rapid manner in 
which a gelatine plate can be afi^ccted by the access 
of light. 

Most beginners will not be content until they have 
tried their 'prentice hands at instantaneous work, 
although, possibly, they will soon learn that slower 
pictures which give more time for their consideration 
and general treatment, arc as a rule far more satisfactory 
in the end. Still there are many subjects — such as 
sea-scapes with shipping, animal studies, including 
children (pardon us, fond parents) which must be taken 
instantaneously, or not at all. 

For instantaneous work the hand is not quick enough 
to uncap and recap the lens. A piece of apparatus 
called an instantaneous shutter, is therefore employed 
to do this work automatically. Their number is legion, 
and the different designs show what a marvellous amount 
of skill lias been expended upon this one item of the 
photographic outfit. We will coatent ourselves with 



INSTANTANEOUS flCTURSS. 4»I. 

noticing one or two forms of shutter only, but they 
may be regarded as being among the best in the market. 
First of all let us describe the "Phantom" shutter, 
shown at page 107. It consists of a light but strong 
frame of ebonite, with an aperture at the lower part, 
which fits the hood of the lens employed. In front of this 
aperture is a flap which can be either gently raised by the 
thumbscrew shown on the left hand side of the drawing, 
or can be suddenly released by touching the catch 
shown below. For non-instantaneous exposures, that 
is to say for all ordinary work, this shuttter can be 
usefmlly employed. The flap is slowly raised so that 
the dark foreground gets, as it should do, more exposure 
than the bright sky which acts so much more quickly 
upon the plate. When the flap is raised to a certain 
height, a shutter working in a grove suddenly falls 
behind it, and the exposure is terminated. For in- 
stantaneous efi'ects the instrument is used in a somewhat 
different manner. An elastic band, shown in the cut, 
is fastened to the shutter and frame respectively, so 
that the descent of the former is rapid in the extreme. 
The tension of the rubber band also afi'ects the flap 
which has a tendency to fly open unless held back by 
its catch. Directly this catch is turned to one side, or 
pulled to one side by an attached string, as shown in 
page 127, the flap flies ap, and the shutter falls down. 

The " Phantom " is rendered still more efficient by 
a mechanical attachment. This consists of a little 
pneumatic piston, with a tiny piston rod, which takes 
the place of the catch shown in page 127. In 
communication with the piston is a tube, which may be 
of any convenient length, termmated by an india- 
rubber air-ball. Pressure of this air-ball in the hand 
causes a force of wind to rush through the tube to the 
piston, the little rod is forced back, and the shutter 
does its work. It may be mentioned that this pneumatic 
attachment is the means adopted for working many 
other forms of shutters, one of which will be next 
described. 



4-^ INSTANTANEOUS PICTUltfiS, 

The " Right-about-turn" shutter (see two Figs, on page 
127) has a certain likeness to the *' Phantom," but it 
has the merit of being one half the size. It is thus 
described by the makers who claim that it is the 
lightest and smallest shutter made. "One screen opens 
as flap in exposing, then falls back upside down as a 
drop shutter in closing, giving foreground the longest 
exposure. The length of exposure is under complete 
control, slow or quick action being obtained either 
by pnuematic action or hand lever." One Fig. shows 
the first part of this action. The shutter has been 
released, and the flap is rising, slowly or quickly as the 
case may be. In the other it has risen completely and is 
commencing its downward drop so as to terminate the 
exposure. 

In the "Economic" shutter (page 127) we have a flap 
which opens and closes again by a crank action with 
great smoothness and rapidity. The simplicity, as well 
as the small bulk of this contrivance must quickly render 
it a favourite. Even with the most compact apparatus, 
the tourist likes to reduce the weight of his necessaries 
as much as possible. The adoption of an instanta- 
neous shutter which can be carried in his waistcoat 
pocket will be a sore temptation to him. 



43 



LANTERN PICTURES, 



The magic lantern has long been a favourite instru- 
ment with children, and under past conditions, when 
the pictures thrown by it were hand painted, and were 
little better than rough daubs ; it was only lit for the 
amusement of children. But now that photography is 
able to furnish pictures full of the most exquisite 
detail, pictures which are actually improved by being 
greatly magnified, the lantern takes a far more important 
place, and is at once raised to the position of a scientific 
apparatus of the greatest value. With the improved 
pictures too has come an improved instrument (see 
page 136). The old oiT lamp, with its disagreeable smell, 
and its weak light, has given place to a lamp with three 
or four wicks burning mineral oil. The lenses too are 
now made on scientific principles, and for a small sum 
we can purchase a lantern fit for exhibition purposes. 
We may look forward to the time when every house- 
hold will regard a lantern as a necessity, and even now 
they are by no means uncommon. Without question 
every amateur photographer should possess one. During 
the long winter evenings when other photographic 
opejations are impossible, he can print from his negatives 
slides for the lantern, which with ordinary precautions 
will compare favourablv with anv that he can purchase 
at shops. We will now give plain directions by which 
this branch of photographic work can be readily 
accomplished. 

For the production of slides we shall require some 
gelatine plates measuring 3|- X 3;^ inches. This' is the 
standard size of all lantern pictures, and no other size 
should be thpught of The plates ordinarily used for 



44 Lantern PictVKU, 

negatives will answer the purpose, and if the slz6 
cannot readily be obtained, quarter plates can be used. 
These measure /{.^ X 3^ inches, so that an inch must 
be cut oft" either before the plate is used, or after it is 
finished. An American glass cutter can be used for 
this, but a diamond is, of course, better. Having 
chosen some suitable negatives, which may be on 
quarter plates, or even 5X4 plates, place one in a 
printing frame, with the film side up, just as if you 
were about to print a proof on albumenized paper. 
But instead of paper place above the negative one or 
the square plates just mentioned. By holding this 
against the negative, and holding the latter close to 
the red lamp, it is easy to choose that portion of the 
subject which it is most desirable to reproduce as a 
transparency, the negative being dimly seen through 
the plate. Now carefully replace on the table, and 
fasten in the back of the frame in the usual way. All 
is now ready for exposure. Daylight being far too 
intense for the purpose, we must use some kind or 
artificial light, and the most convenient is gas. Ir 
possible, have a table gas lamp with a good batswing 
burner. Light this before commencing operations, 
and turn it down to "the blue." (A capital burner is 
now made on purpose for photographers. It ^cannot 
be turned quite out, and is always ready when it is 
wanted.) Now hold the printing frame so that the 
negative faces the burner, at a distance of about 
1 8 inches from it. Turn up the light for three seconds, 
and immediately turn it down again. This exposure 
will be about sufficient for a good negative, and using 
a gelatine plate of ordinary rapidity. If the negative 
be thin, place it three feet away from the light, and 
increase the exposure four fold. If, on the contrary, 
the negative be very dense, it may be placed much 
closer to the light ; as in other branches of photography, 
the exact exposure can only be learnt by experience. 
At the same time it is all important that correct ex- 
posure should be given for each negative employed." 



LANTERN PICTURES. 45 

There arc several methods by which transparencies 
may be developed, indeed any developer can be used, 
if we arc not particular as to colour. The ordinary 
pyrogallic and ammonia developer will give a picture 
of a disagreeable yellow tinge, and although this tint 
can be partly removed by a clearing solution of citric 
acid and alum, the colour remaining is not satisfactory 
when the picture is seen on the screen. Jf pyrogallic 
developing is used at all, it should be employed in the 
form of the Beach developer already described. This 
gives a good black colour. Almost as good a result 
can be promised by using the soda developer. But 
this mode of development is specially liable to extreme 
yellowness, particularly if the operation be prolonged. 
It must therefore be followed by using the clearing 
solution containing iron, which has been already given 
in the chapter on development. This solution should 
be freshly mixed for the purpose. 

The developer which in the writer's hands has given 
the best results for transparency work, is a modification 
of the ferrous oxalate method. Mix the developer as 
already recommended, by adding the powdered iron 
crystals to the oxalate of potash solution, and then 
adding a few drops of bromide of potash solution. So 
far we have the ferrous oxalate developer pure and 
simple, which may be used a^ ii: is. Here comes the 
modification. Mix as a stock solution the following : — 

Citric Acid ... ... 5 ounces. 

Distilled, or Rain Water... 20 ounces. 

Liquor Ammonia ('SSo)... 2 ounces. 

The citric acid crystals may conveniently be rubbed 
down in a mortar. Add the water to them, and after 
transferring the mixture to a strong bottle, add the 
ammonia. This last addition will cause the evolution 
of so much heat that the crystals left unpowdered will 
quickly dissolve. If the solution be kept beyond a few 
weeks, a kind of mouldy fungoid growth will be 
observed in it, This c^n be prevented by adding to 



46 LANTERN PICTURES. 

the solution when first mixed, a pinch of salicylic acid 
in powder. Doubtless, a drop of carbolic acid or a few 
cloves would answer the same purpose. This solution 
may be labelled ''citrate of ammonia." The modified 
developer is made by mixing the solution of citrate of 
ammonia with the ferrous oxalate developer in equal 
parts. 

In making transparencies we must be as particular 
in keeping the hypo, solution at a respectful distance, 
as we must be during the operation of toning prints. 
And this is best achieved by not mixing any hypo, 
until all the transparencies which are in hand are ready 
for fixing. Let the operations be conducted as follows. 

In the first place clear the operating table of every- 
thing not actually required for the business in hand. 
On the operator's right hand let the gas-lamp be in 
readiness turned down to its very lowest. At the back 
of the table should stand the red lamp supported at a 
convenient height upon some form or stand. Immedi- 
ately in front of it should be placed the developing 
dish, and a half plate ebonite one is the best for the 
purpose. It has the merit of having a flat bottom, and 
it is large enough to hold two plates side by side. This 
is a great convenience in transparency work, for the 
reason that sometimes through injudicious exposure a 
plate will require much persuasion before it will yield 
up a good image. It may remain in the developer for 
ten minutes or more without detriment, while other 
more obliging plates are being finished in the same 
dish. 

At the left hand side of the developing dish should 
stand a large dish capable of holding a dozen or two 
lantern slides. This should be filled with a weak 
solution of alum and water. As each plate is developed, 
it should be washed well, and transferred to the alum 
bath. In this bath the plates can remain for many 
hours if required, without sufi'ering any harm; of course 
they must not see daylight for they are still in a sensitive 



LANTERN PICTURES. 47 

condition, but an occasional gleam of gaslight such as 
they would get while other plates are being exposed, 
will do them no harm whatever. If one plate is being 
exposed to light while another remains in the developing 
dish, the latter should be covered over with a piece of 
card or the lid of a cardboard plate box. 

After all the plates of a batch are developed and in the 
alum bath, we can proceed to fix them in hypo, solution. 
This should be mixed freshly for the purpose. Indeed, 
it should be a standard rule with photographers to mix 
this salt freshly for whatever purpose it may be required. 
The soda is so cheap now-a-days that economy in its 
use need not be thought about. 

The dish used for the fixing solution should be large 
enough to contain at least four lantern slides at one 
time. As each is cleared it may be rinsed and put 
back in the alum dish until all are so replaced. Then 
take the large dish to the sink, carefully empty away 
the alum and water, and let the tap run into it for some 
minutes, every now and then tilting up the dish as the 
water accumulates. Finally, let the plates remain in 
water for at least a couple of hours, and then proceed 
to examine them. If the iron developer has been used, 
a slight deposit of oxalate of lime may possibly be 
noticeable on the sur/ace of the film, making it some- 
what milky in appearance. This is often of such a 
superficial nature that it can be wiped off with a tuft of 
cotton wool, while the water from the tap is allowed 
to run upon the plate. But if the disease is of a deeper 
nature and seems to attack the body of the film, more 
energetic measures must be resorted to for its cure. 
Mix the following : — 

Saturated Solution of Alum ... lo ounces. 
Sulphuric Acid ... ... ^ ounce. 

Pour this mixture on and off the plate two or three 
times, and the milkiness will at once disappear. This 
strongly acid solution will have, with some plates, a 
tendency to cause them to frill, so that it must be used 



48 LANTERN PICTURES. 

with caution. But in most cases the application of a 
tuft of cotton wool will do what is necessary. If the 
acid be used the plates must undergo another careful 
washing, but if not, they can be rinsed under a tap, and 
placed in a rack to dry spontaneously. On a fine day 
they will dry quickest in the open air, but should be 
placed in some situation where wind and dust cannot 
do them any injury. 

In developing transparencies the all important point 
is to arrive at the proper amount of density. This 
amount must depend upon the purpose for which the 
transparency is required. For an ordinary lantern 
picture the development should be allowed to continue 
until the picture appears to be rather overdone. Its 
real density may be better judged by holding it up to 
the red lamp once or twice during development, and 
viewing it by transmitted light. If it does not appear 
deep enough, return it once more to the dish until the 
right amount of density is attained. 

But the transparency may be wanted merely as a 
vehicle for obtaining another negative, or for enlarging 
purposes. In these cases the development must be 
carried to a much greater extent, and every bit of detail 
must be dragged out before the plate can be considered 
complete. The same rule must guide the operator, ir 
his transparencies are intended for window decoration. 
These, it must be remembered, will be viewed when 
finished, by transmitted light, and can be therefore 
made very dense indeed. We may state in passing, 
that there is a very wide field open to the photographer 
in this direction. Good transparencies backed up with 
ground glass, and perhaps leaded together with a frame 
of tinted cathedral glass, have a splendid effect when 
used as door panels, fan-lights, or in ordinary windows. 

Hitherto, in dealing with the production of lantern 
slides, we have supposed that the negative employed 
is of such a size that it can be reproduced as a positive 
by Cpntact printing in the ordinary printing frame, 



Occasionally, however, the operator will have a negative 
of larger size which he will be anxious to reduce to 
the standard lantern size. Let us supposd, for instance, 
that he has a whole-plate negative (8J X 6^ inches) 
and that he requires to reduce this to lantern size 
(3^ inches square). It is quite plain that the contact 
method will not do here, unless he requires but a 
quarter of the negative to be reproduced. The reduc- 
tion must be made by means of the camera, with such 
additions as any amateur worker can arrange for himself 
in a very short time. 

Upon a deal table nail a couple of laths at such a 
distance apart that the camera will slide to and fro 
between them, like a tramcar on its rails. At one end 
of this miniature railway, place a small lidless box — 
a packing case will do — with its open end facing the 
camera. In the bottom of this box a hole should be 
cut (8^ X 6^ inches) to fit the negative. A groove 
top and bottom, made by nailing slips of wood on the 
outside of the opening, will hold the negative in position. 
Outside the box place a sheet of stout card at an angle 
of 45 degrees, so that the light from the *ky is reflected 
through the negative. (We are to suppose that the 
work is being carried on out of doors, or at any rate 
in some kind of glass-house.) Between the open box 
and the camera, and on the upper part of each lay a 
couple of light wooden rods, and over these put a dark 
cloth. We must now see to the camera. If it be 
larger than quarter size, the ground glass screen should 
have pencilled upon it a 3^ inch square, as a guide to 
the size of the picture required. The dark slide too 
must be furnished with a carrier to hold a 3^ inch plate. 
The lens employed should be of short focus, the wide 
angled doublet, or portable symetrical, shown at 
Fig. 21, being suitable for the purpose. A rapid 
rectilinear, or a portrait lens can be used, but neither 
of these will give quite such good result: as the one 
just recommended. 

E 



5© LANtEftN PICTURES. 

The picture must be carefully focussed, using the 
largest stop in the rotating diaphragm. In this, great 
advantage will be found in using a focussing glass, 
which can be purchased for a few shillings. The glass 
is held touching the ground glass screen of the camera, 
and the eye is applied to the smaller end of the brass 
tube in which it is mounted. A good focus can be 
more quickly obtained by means of this glass than 
with the unaided eye. By moving the camera to and 
fro between the laths nailed to the table, and by 
working the focussing screw of the camera, it will be 
found easy to get the image on the screen down to the 
correct size. 

With regard to the exposure necessary to ensure the 
best results, we must once more speak rather vaguely. 
It depends upon the light, the density and colour or 
the negative, and the lens employed. But supposing 
that the light be good, and to consist of the reflected 
light from a clear blue sky, that we employ the smallest 
stop but one of the portable symmetrical lens, and 
that we are using a first-rate whole-plate negative, 
with a fairly rapid plate in our dark slide, the exposure 
will be about two minutes. 

Lantern slides after being dried do not require much 
further treatment. If used uncoloured they ought to 
be varnished in the same way that a negative is 
varnished. Coloured pictures are protected by the 
medium used as a vehicle by the painter, which consists 
of thin varnish. In any case they will require to be 
mounted with a thin cover glass, and between the two 
glasses is placed a paper mask. These masks are made 
of black paper and can be bought ready cut with a 
round, square, or cushioned-shapcd opening. A land- 
scape will generally look best in a round mask, but 
occasionally when a figure is standing at one side of the- 
picture part of it might be cut ofl' by that shaped 
opening, in which case a cushioned-shaped mask must 
be employed. For architectural subjects the square 
mask is most suitable; 



Lantern pictures. 5^ 

The two glasses with their intervening mask must 
now be bound together by a slip of gummed paper. 
The black paper known as needle paper is the b'cst to 
cmpl«y, and the gum which sticks most firmly to glass, 
is made as follows : — 

Dextrine ... ... ... l ounce. 

Loaf Sugar ... ... -^ ounce. 

Mix into a mucilage with . warm water, and leave on 
the hob for an hour or two until thoroughly transparent. 
One side of the needle paper should be gummed with 
this mixture, and when dry the paper can be cut into 
strips |ths of an inch wide and 14 inches long. 

To bind a slide with one of these gummed slips, 
damp the gummed side of the paper with a sponge or 
with the tongue, and place it before you on the table. 
Now take a lantern slide and place one edge of it at 
the end of the strip, and exactly in its centre. Now 
turn it over and ov^er on the strip until all four edges 
are covered, and in the meantime press down the edges 
of the paper so that they will lap over, and fasten the 
two pieces of glass rigidly together. 

Some kind of slide holder is required before the 
pictures can be shown in the lantern. Professional 
exhibitors use a separate mahogany frame for each 
picture and the picture remains in it. But for amateurs 
this plan is needlessly expensive. A good plan is to 
employ what is called a panoramic slide holder, which 
consists of a frame having a groove at the top and 
bottom, through which the pictures can be passed in 
turn, one picture pushing out the other which has been 
already shown. 

There is also another slide holder which can be well 
recommended. This consists of a frame to fit the 
lantern, within which slides a double holder, with 
places for two pictures. While one picture is being 
shown the other is outside the lantern, and can be 
changed for the one next in order. 

A well executed photograph on glass, prepared for the 

£ 2 



5 2 LANTERN nCT I^RES. 

lantern, is a photograph at its vcTy best. A picture of 
the same size on paper would in comparison giv^e aveiy 
poor effect, for the grain of the paper destroys in a 
measure the finer details. But in a picture on glass 
there is no grain, at least no visible grain, and when 
thrown on a screen by a good lantern, ircan be viewed 
by a number of people at one and the same time. The 
amateur photographer will find no end of pleasing 
occupation in translating his negatives into this form. 
Still more pleasure will he find in describing his rambles 
to his friends, accompanying his remarks, by first-rate 
pictorial illustrations. 



53 



HOW TO ENLARGE SMALL 
PHOTOGRAPHS. 



The amatucr photographer who on the score of 
expense or because of its greater portability elects to 
purchase a small camera rather than a large one, will 
always have the satisfaction of reflecting that his small 
pictures can be enlarged. The image afix>rded by the 
camera is so perfect in its details that (unless this 
enlargement be carried to an extravagant extent) it 
suffers no harm by being greatly magnified. As a proof 
of this we may point to the ordinary photographic 
lantern slide, the visible part of which measures less 
than three inches in diameter. Yet such tiny pictures 
are constantly used by professional lecturers, who think 
nothing of showing them enlarged by the limelight on 
a screen measuring 15 to 18 feet across. We give this 
as an instance of the perfection of detail which a good 
photograph is capable of affording. The amateur will 
he content if he can enlage his quarter plates, or 5 x 4 
negatives to 12 >< 10 or i 5 X 12. We would not advise 
him to attempt any larger size than the latter, at any 
rate, until he has had some experience of this branch 
of photographic work. 

Before proceeding to enlarge a negative the operator 
must consider one important point. Does he want one 
or two copies of the enlarged picture, or does he require 
a dozen or more ? In the first case he will seek to pro- 
duce enlarged positives direct on paper. In the latter 
case his best plan will be to obtain an enlarged negative 
from which as many prints can be obtained as he may 
require by the ordinary method with the printing 



54 HOW TO ENLARGE SMALL PHOTOGRAPHS. 

frame. The negative may be a paper one if preferred, 
for paper admirably adapted to this purpose can now 
be obtained. 

There are many different methods by which an 
enlarged picture can be obtained,, Many of these 
require an extensive plant such as amateur workers 
would never think of purchasing. A few years ago such 
work would not be attempted except by experienced 
professional photographers, but since the introduction, 
about five years back, of a special kind of paper called 
"gelatino-bromide" paper, the operation of enlarging 
has been so much simplified that it now presents no 
great difficulty. The paper mentioned is in every 
respect similar to a gelatine plate, except that the 
sensitive emulsion of bromide of silver, instead of being 
supported on glass, is spread upon paper. It is sold in 
light tight boxes, at a cheap rate, and in dealing with 
it all the precautions against access of white light which 
are necessary in working gelati nc plates must be observed. 

The simplest and cheapest method of enlarging is 
to use daylight as the illuminator, and the following 
method may be recommended. Choose a window, if 
possible, from which there is an uninterrupted view of 
the sky. Carefully close it all up with brown paper, 
except a space sufficiently large to contain a printing 
frame holding the negative to be enlarged. The frame 
must be without its back and with the springs removed 
from it. The negative can be supported in it by tacks, 
and the film side should be placed inwards towards the 
room. This frame can be easily supported in position 
at a convenient height by strips of wood, one above and 
one below, screwed at each end into the window frame. 
To the lower stnp also attach a shelf large enough to 
hold a camera. The camera is placed on this shelf 
with ito lens pointing away from the window. 

Having arranged these details, it will be found that 
an enlarged image of the negative will be cast upon a 
sheet of cardboard held a few feet from the camera, the 



HOW TO ENLARGE SMALL PHOTOGRAriTa. 5^ 

size of the picture depending upoa the distance. By 
moving the camera to and fro on its shelf, which should 
be long enough to give a little play in this respect, the 
image can easily be sharply focussed. 

Now place on a table a box or board which can act 
as a solid screen for the reception of the image. It 
must be firm, whatever else it be. Cover it with \<rhite 
paper or tack a sheet of cardboard upon it. This is your 
focussing screen. Mark out upon it a space 15 x 12, 
or any other size that you may determine upon, and 
move it and the camera until the image fills the space. 
Take a strip of the gelatino bromide paper, 2 or 3 inches 
wide and 1 2 inches long, and after covering the negative 
in the window with a piece of card so as to shut oiF the 
light, pin this strip to your screen. Place in front of it 
a piece of orange paper which will cover three-quarters 
of it, so that when you uncover the negative and allow 
the light to do its work only one-quarter of the paper 
strip will be affected. Now expose for, say 5 minutes. 
Cover the negative, and uncover another quarter of the 
strip, and expose once more for 5 minutes. Do this 
the third time with another quarter, and once more 
with the whole strip exposed to the light coming 
through the negative. As a result you have a trial strip 
of paper the four parts of which have received exposures 
respectively of 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Develope 
this strip, and it will be an unfailing guide to the 
amount of density obtainable with a negative of a 
certain quality and lindcr certain conditions of light. 
The experiment may seem a tedious one, but it is 
worth the trouble, and will perhaps save many a sheet 
of sensitive paper which would otherwise be sacrificed 
in trial exposures. 

As to development, we need not describe it here, 
because copious directions accompany, each packet of 
paper. We may merely remark that the method 
employed is the ferrous oxalate formula already given, 
but it is modified in one or two details. 



56 HOW TO ENLARGE SMALL PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Those who depend upon daylight, especially dwellers 
in London, or other large cities and towns, have many 
a day of disappointed hopes. But they need not 
despair, for enlargements can be taken during the 
dullest days, or at night by means of the apparatus 
shown at page 126. This is virtually a magic lantern 
with an extended front. It is fitted with a patent 
light, giving a wonderful amount of illumination. 

The secret of getting the greatest eflicicncy from 
any illuminant, the electric light excepted, is to furnish 
it with plenty of oxygen. Pure oxygen is out of the 
question, unless we are prepared to undertake all the 
trouble involved in using a lime light. But as ordinary 
air consists one-fifth of the gas, and as it can be had 
free of cost, it answers every purpose. To increase 
the flame of the fire the housemaid uses a pair of 
bellows. By the same law a conflagration becomes 
more brilliant in a high wind. Applying the same 
principle to the lantern Cand it may be a lantern for 
exhibition purposes, or an enlarging lantern) th« 
inventor of this special form of lamp employs a fan 
worked by clockwork in the body of the lantern itself. 
This fan delivers a constant and regular supply of fresh 
air, which plays in and around the wicks, adding much 
to the brilliancy of the light, and at the same time 
acting as a ventilator, and keeping the lantern cool. 
The increase of light power is enormous, and as it is 
a firmly established law, thit the size of a picture 
shown by a lantern is only limited by the amount of 
illumination available, this increase is of the very 
first importance. The clockwork which drives the 
fan requires winding up once or twice during an 
evenings work with the instrument, an operation as 
noiseless and easy as the winding of a watch. This 
application of an old principle to the lantern is entirely 
new. 

In using the enlarging apparatus with this artificial 
light, the front lens is used as an objective, and casts 



HOW TO ENLARGE SMALL PHOTOGRAPHS. 57 

the enlarged image on a wall or screen. Upon this 
screen is fixed the scnsitve paper, and the light given 
is so great that a quarter plate negative can be enlarged 
to 15 X 12 in about 3 minutes. 



58 



APPARATUS FOR PHOTO' 
MICROGRAPHY. 



Workers with the Microscope are generally desirous 
of obtaining pictorial records of many of the objects 
whose structure that wonderful instrument allows them 
to examine. Hitherto such records have been made 
with the pencil, by the aid of an attachment to 
the Microscope, known as the Camera lucida. But 
although the artist may be conscientious as well as 
skilful, it is next to impossible for him to obtain a 
really trustworthy representation of what he tries to 
copy. This is because a draughtsman cannot help 
investing his work with a certain individuality ; so that 
although two men might try their best to faithfully 
copy the same object, the results would show a very 
great amount of dissimilarity. We all know that a 
man's handwriting is something peculiar to him, and 
that its particular traits will become evident even if he 
tries to write in a feigned manner. So it is with an 
artist's pencil, a circumstance which enaklcs experts 
to detect the work of different known hands with 
unfaiimg accuracy. 

Now it is evident that in the pourtrayal of Micro- 
scopic objects, where truth is the one thing needful, 
and where artistic touches are not required ; the 
photographic plate can give a more correct result than 
any mere drawing. This is now conceded by the best 
workers, and Photo- Micrography as it is called, has 
become a branch of science in which many excel. 
With these preliminary remarks, we will proceed to 
give such detailed directions as will' enable those who 



APPARATUS FOR PHOTO-MICROGRAPHy. ^9 

are desirous of doing bo, to siicceed in this very 
ii^teresting and instructive field of photographic work. 

First of all, let us say a few words with regard to the 
type of Microscope to be employed. It need not be 
an expensive one ; but it is advisable that it should 
possess a circular revolving stage having mechanical 
adjustments for centreing the object. It must be firm, 
and on some description of foot which cannot readily 
be knocked over. It must be so constructed that the 
entire instrument with the exception of the foot can 
be bent down to the horizontal position. Its tube 
should be short and thick. It must have a coarse 
adjustment, regulated by rack and pinion in the usual 
way, and also a fine adjustment. This latter should be 
so conveniently placed on the instrument, and its milled 
head cut with a groove, that it can be turned by means 
of an attached cord, in the manner to be presently 
described. The stage upon which the objects are 
placed, should be a revolving one, with brass clips to 
hold the slide firmly in position when the instrument 
is placed horizontally. Beneath the stage there should 
be an internal screw to receive a condenser. And it 
may be mentioned here that an achromatic object glass 
of the triple (French) form answers the purpose well. 
But care should be taken that the power of this con- 
denser should never exceed the power of the objective 
in use. The French triplet, consisting of three glasses, 
each mounted separately, but screwing together, admits 
of regulation in this respect. For instance, in using 
the quarter inch objective, two of the French ones 
would be employed. But if the eighth objective were 
in use, then the complete triplet would form a suitable 
sub-stage, condenser. With the inch power no con- 
densing lens on the sub-stage would be necessary. 

The ordinary lens of the camera is removed, and a 
short tube (lined with black velvet, and of such a 
diameter that the microscope tube will easily slide 
within it) is put in its place. The eyepiece of the 



6o APPARATUS FOR PHOTO-MICROGRAPHY. 

microscope having been removed, the tube is slipped 
into the velvet lined aperture just described. The 
microscope tube should also be lined with velvet, or 
reflected light is sure to do some mischief when pho- 
tography is commenced. The lamp is now placed 
behind the stage, as shown in page 128, and must be 
'very carefully adjusted to the correct height. In front 
of it is placed the condenser, with its convex face 
towards the camera. A low power objective, say a 
one inch, is now screwed on to the microscope, the 
lamp is lighted, and the ground glass focussing screen 
of the camera examined. If every part of the apparatus 
has been correctly centred, the screen should exhibit 
a clear disc of light. Jf o"ne portion appears to be 
brighter than another, it is quite certain that something 
is out of centre. The lamp may possibly be a little 
out of adjustment, or the condenser perhaps wants to 
be movgd a trifle. A friendly assistant will be of great 
use here in trying the various adjustments while the 
operator, covered with the focussing cloth, is watching 
the screen. Until a clear disc is obtained, the work 
cannot proceed further. 

When all seems to be perfect in the above respects, 
an object can be placed upon the stage and roughly 
focussed with the coarse adjustment. This object 
should be some well known one, so that the operator 
may know how it should appear, and what to look for. 
And now we must use the fine adjustment. It has 
been already pointed out that the milled head of this 
latter should be provided with a groove. In this groove 
is slipped a silk cord which is geared to a pulley wheel 
upon a long focussing rod at the side of the table (see 
page 128. The other end of this rod is furnished with 
a button which is within reach of, and can readily be 
turned by the hand of the operator as he watches the 
focussing screen. 

In a photographic lens the visual and chemical foci 
are made to coincide, so that a picture which appears 10 



APPARAttJS FOR f»JiOTO-Micfe6GRAPHY. 6r 

be sharply defined on the camera screen will give a 
sharp picture when photographed. But in the micro- 
scope objective this is not always the case, and more 
especially in the case of low powers will this difFertnce 
of foci become apparent. So that an image which 
appears to be sharp enough on the screen, turns out to 
be indistinct in the negative. Where this difficulty 
arises, it can be corrected in the following manner. 
After the image appears to be sharply defined, turn the 
fine adjustment so as to make the objective approach 
towards the object until the image on the focussing 
screen appears to be surrounded by a red areola. 
Although at this poiilt it may not seem to be as sharply 
defined as before, the resulting negative will be all 
right. 

After the lamp is lighted and all adjustments made, 
the apparatus may with advantage be allowed to rest 
for a short time, for the heat concentrated on the lenses, 
etc., is likely to cause slight expansion. The object 
can be focussed while the camera bellows is but extended 
one half. It can afterwards be extended until the 
image on the screen is of the desired size, and the fine 
adjustment brought into requisition as a finishing touch. 
The screen is now folded back, and the dark slide 
charged with its gelatine plate or plates is slipped into 
position. A blank card is placed against the sub-stage 
to shut off the light, the dark slide shutter is drawn, and 
now all is ready for taking the photograph. All that 
remains to be done is to remove the blank card for as 
long a time as may be judged necessary for exposure. 

Upon this subject of exposure we can say but little, 
for it is governed, as in the case of an ordinary photo- 
graph, by a great many circumstances. One advantage 
however is possessed by the Microscopic worker, and 
that is that his source of light is a cons-tant one. He 
is not dependent upon fickle daylight. (It may be 
mentioned here, that daylight or any other light except 
that proceeding from the lamp, must be rigorously 



62 APPARATtfS POR PHOTO-MtCROGRAPIIV. 

excluded during all operations. But of course the red 
lamp may be kept burning with advantage, both as an 
illumination for the room, and for the necessary 
chemical" work). But he will soon find out that length 
of exposure is governed in great measure by the nature 
of the object photographed. If the mounting medium 
(generally Canada balsam) be of a yellow tinge, this 
alone will necessitate greatly prolonged exposure. 
Then again, the object may be purposely stained with 
some nonactinic dye such as aniline brown. The best 
results will be obtained if the worker is clever enough 
to prepare his own slides. It would take us too far 
from our subject to go into this matter of mounting. 
But information upon the subject can be readily 
obtained from the various excellent books upon the 
Microscope now published. Of these we may mention 
Wood's "Common Objects for the Microscope," 
Davies "On Mounting Microscopic Objects," and the 
large treatises of Carpenter and Beak, 



4>i 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Photographic formulas arc compounded by Apoth- 
ecaries' Weight. Dry chemicals are preferably weighed 
out in scales with glass pans. Liquid chemicals are 
measured in a graduated glass measure. Both measure 
and scale pans should be kept scrupulously clean. 

APOTHECARIES WEIGHT. 

Dry. 

20 grains = i scruple. 

3 scruples = i drachm = 60 grains. 

8 drachms = i ounce = 480 „ 

12 ounces = i pound = 5760 „ 

Wet. 

60 minims = i fluid drachm. 

8 drachms = i ounce. 

20 ounces == i pint. 

8 pints == I gallon. 

It must be noted however, that the chemicals are sold 
by Avoirdupois Weight, in which the ounc6 and the 
drachm have other values. 

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 

27^ grains =^ I drachm. 
( i6 drachms = i ounce. 

s6 ounces =-■ i pounds 



64 



W£t6htS AND MEASURES* 



Formulae from foreign sources arc generally compounded 
in grammes instead of grains. The following table 
for their conversion either way, will be found useful. 



I gramme 


= 15-43 grains 


2 




= 30-86 „ 


3 




« 46- 29 




4 




= 61-73 


, 


5 -' 




= 77- 16 


» 


6 „ 




= 92-59 , 


, 


7 » 




= 108-03 


» 


8 „ 




= 123-46 


» 


9 - 




= 138-89 , 


J 


I grain 


__ 


-0648 grammes. 


2 » 


= 


•1296 ,^ 


3 r 




-^ 


•»944 


4 » 




= 


•2592 


5 , 




c= 


•3240 


6 , 




=r 


-3888 


7 , 




— 


•4536 


8 , 




= 


•5184 » 


9 » 




= 


•5832 





THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE 

ON 

EXPOSURE 

IS KINDLY CONTRIBUTED 

BY 

A. S. PLATTS, tsQ.- 



67 

EXPOSURE. 



To the beginner in Photography the question presents 
itself, " how long shall the cap remain off the lens 
during an exposure;" and, "what is the duration of 
the mystic, period, known as 'correct exposure'?" 
So many varying elements enter into 'its composition, 
that it expands and contracts, grows and diminishes, 
and seems ever to elude the grasp of the panting 
neophyte. Correct exposure is the Will-o'-the-wisp 
of Photography. The many hued tints of changing 
nature, the bright-eyed sky, the sombre woodland, the 
stretching landscape, the solemn gloom of the cathedral 
aisle, the glamour of noon-day, the dying twilight, the 
sweet touch of spring, the golden richness of autumn, 
the cold shiver of winter, the tiny circlet that shields 
the glistening lens, the nervous sensitiveness of the 
quivering plate, all minister at the shrine of "correct 
exposure ;" and all these the novice must conquer if 
he would ensnare th^ wayward sprite. 

That the factors of subject and lighting, time of 
day and year, aperture and plate, may be considered 
each in due course, and not left to haphazard conjecture 
or doubtful inspiration, I have laid down rules for my 
own guidance in the following tables, which the 
beginner may do v/ell to follow : — 

Before making an exposure, I find out by a glance 
at Table I. what is nearest the subject in hand. 1 write 
down the figure I decide upon, and multiply it by a 
figure from Table II. ; I next multiply the product by 
a figure from Table III. which agrees with the stop 
I am using, and the product I divide by a figure from 
Table IV. agreeing with the plate I am using. The 
answer is in seconds, and is the length of exposure the 
subject requires. 



68 EXPOSURE. 

TABLE I.— Subject and Light. 



Compiled and slightly altered 

from 
Eder's and Burton's Tables. 



Sea and Sky | 

Panoramic View I 

Do. with Thick Foliage, or 
strong foreground, or light 
buildings ...' 

Dark Buildings 

Heavy Foliage Foreground ... 

Woods and badly lit River 
Banks 

Living objects outdoors 

Portrait near window 

Interiors upwards of lOO 

Copying same size 6 



Sun- 
shine. 



Diffused 
Light, 



10 

8 

16 



Dull. 



9 
12 

iz 

24 



Very 
Dull. 



12 
16 

40 
20 
40 



Gloomy 



10 

20 

30 
60 







TABLE IL— Time (Dr. J. 


A. Scott). 




HOUR OF DAY 
a.m. p.m. 


JUKE. 


MAY. 
JULY. 


APRIL, 
AUG. 


MARCU.j FEB. 
SEP. OCT. 


JAN. 
NOV. 


DEC. 


12 




I 


li 


n 


2 


3^ 


4 


II 


I 




I 


'i 


4 


4 


4 


5 


10 


2 




I 


»i 


If 


3 


5 


6 


9 


3 


'i 


4 


^h 


2 


4 


12 


16 


8 


4 


xi 


2 


3 


10 






7 


5 




^h 


3 


6 








6 


6 1 


»i 


3 


6 




Yellow Sunset 




5 


7 




6 




affects these figure 


s. 


4 


8 


12 









EXPOSURE. 



69 



TABLE III.— Lens and Stops. 



TJ. S. Stops. 


Intensity Hatio Stops. 


Exposure. 


4- 


F 8 


t 


6- 25 


F 10 Unit 


I 


8- 


F 11-31 


'i 


9" 


F iz 


Ih 


12-25 


F14 


2 


16- 


F 16 


^h 


20- 25 


F 18 


3i: 


25" 


F20 


4 


32- 


F 22- 62 


5 


36- 


F24 


5i 


42-25 


F26 


CI 


49' 


F28 


7l 


56-25 


F30 


9 


64- 


F32 


loi 


2r 


F36 


n 


100- 


F40 


16 


128- 


F 46- 25 


20i 


144- 


F48 


23 


,82-25 


F54 


29 


225- 


F60 


36 


256- 


F64 


4' 


306- 25 


F70 


49 


4-0' 


F80 


64 


512- 


F 90- 50 


82 


576- 


F96 


92 



yo 



EXPOSURE. 

TABLE IV.— Plates. 

Unit. — Very Slow Plate, Panoramic View 

in Sunshine, Ji:ne Noon, F lo Stop, 

1 Second Exposure. 



Sensitometer 

Numbers. 


Divide by 


lO 


2 


to 


4 


II 


3 


M 


5 


12 


3 


5» 


5 


13 


4 


J? 


6 


14 


4 


J> 


8 


17 


1 

8 




10 

13 
16 


18 


10 


» 


20 


»9 


12 




25 


20 


15 


„ 


28 


21 


20 


M 


35 


22 


25 


« 


40 


23 


3«>: 


J> 


45 


24 


35 

40 


r? 


50 
60 


Unknown 


10 


M 


30 



Notes to Tables. — Table I. This table must be 
used intelligently. A panoramic view I take to be a 
stretch of country with nothing particularly prominent 
in it. If masses of thick foliage are present (not in 
foreground) I double the exposure, but this must be 
done with judgment, varying this and every other item 
as I think the subject demands. No rule of thumb 
adherence must be given to this table. Thus I photo- 
graph my friends in diffused light in open air, but in 
such a secluded built up spot, that I always set down 
16 or double the table to commence with. 

In copying it must be remembered that if, as invari- 
ably occurs, the focus is lengthened, longer exposure 
must be given. Thus I copy a print same size in 
diffused light with my W.A. Icnsc of 6 inch focus. 



EXPOSURE, 7 1 

To focus correctly, I must lengthen to 12 inches, which 
means 4 times extra exposure. Four times 12 (copyinj; 
in diffused light) are 48, that is 48 times exposure of a 
new in sunshine. When focus is lengthened, ascertain 
the relative exposures by squaring the two numbers, 
and divide the greater by the lesser. Thus as above, 
6 X 6 = 36, 12 X 12 = 144. Divide latter by former ; 
answer 4, that is, the 12 inch focus requires 4 times 
exposure of the 6 inches. By the same rule a portrait 
near window (about ij feet distance, camera outside 
window) requires longer exposure for every foot or 
distance from window, thus a given light at i foot 
distance will be 4 t'mcs weaker at 2 feet, 9 at 3 feet, 
16 at 4 ft., &c. As however so much depends on size 
of window, and whether it has open view of the sky 
or not, together with distance from it, that I have 
refrained from giving a figure for "portrait in ordinary 
room." 

Table II. This requires no comment, beyond giving^ 
all the credit for its compilation to Dr. J. A. Scott, 
of Dublin. 

Table III. If the beginner knows the focus of his 
lens and the numbers of his stops, the table is ready to 
his hand. If not, however, it is imperative that he 
shall find them out. The length of focus is ascertained 
by measuring the distance betwixt the focussing screen, 
and the object glass of a single lens, or the diaphragms 
(stops) of a doublet lens. Focus sharply on some 
distant object, and measure accordingly. Next measure 
accurately the diameter of each stop aperture. Divide 
the length of focus by this diameter, and if the answer 
is — say 28, the stop is called F28. Thus 10 inch focus 
with I inch diameter of stop would be Fio. If the 
student desires to use the Uniform System Numbers 
(column i), he must ignore column 3, and multiply by 
the figures in column i. It is necessary however at 
the same time to use figures 6^ times greater in Table IV. 
The Uniform System unit is F4. 



72 EXPOSURE. 

Table IV. If the sensitometer number of plate is 
known, divide by a medium figure between the two 
given in column 2, and alter until the figure best 
suitable for the developer in use, and the exposure most 
desired (full or severely correct) is arrived at. In using 
an unknown plate the same plan must be adopted. 
Let it be understood that lower figures mean longer 
exposure, and vice versa. The plates I use myself for 
most work are of the cheapest, registering 18 sensi- 
tometer, and I divide according to subject with 15 to 20. 

Example of Exposure. — Suppose a village scene in 
diffused light at 3 p.m. in April, F30 stop, plate 
sensitometer 18. Table I. light buildings, &c., 
4 multiplied by I J (Table II.) = 6, multiplied by 9 
(Table III.) = 54, divided by 15 (Table IV.) equals 
3§ seconds. 

Diffused light, means bright sky without sun, or 
where no sun shines on subject. Dull — sky partially 
overcast. Very dull — much overcast. Half-points 
between any of these two may be used. 



<' 



FILMS 

AND 

PAPER NEGATIVES. 



PHOTO- 
MECHANICAL 
PRINTING 

PROCESSES. 



TAD H' 



^^^3^0H'\ 



75 



FILMS AND PAPER NEGATIVES. 



The introduction of films and paper as supports for the 
sensitive emulsion, whilst it was received with accla- 
mation by amateurs, has after extended trial proved 
extremely disappointing. The advantages in favour ot 
the new-comers are saving in weight, freedom from 
halation, and less chance of breakage; but the disadvan- 
tages of some extra trouble, some, and often, extremely 
prolonged operations, in addition to the usual ones of 
development and fixing, have and still out-weigh the 
above advantages. The writer has used every film and 
negative paper in the market, and has given them all a 
fair trial, but still adheres to the old standard dry-plate. 
Films are recommended, especially for those engaged in 
photo-mechanical or carbon printing, as they can be 
printed from either side, but as the same effect may be 
obtained by the use of the ordinary dry-plate, with no 
more trouble than is required for a film, the writer pre- 
fers even for this work to use the trusty and reliable 
glass support. 

The first introduced was the negative paper, which, as 
its name implies, consisted of an emulsion upon an 
almost grainless paper, but it was found to be impossible 
to totally eradicate the grain, hence another suppoit, 
such as a film of insoluble gelatine or a temporary sup- 
port of paper was invented. 

It is of course obvious that some mechanical method 
is required to strain the paper flat in the dark slide, or 
from the natural tendency of the paper to curl or bend 
up the picture would be out of focus. For this purpose 
an ingenious carrier has been devised, which is extremely 



76 FILMS AND PAPER NEGATIVES. 

simple and reasonable in price, but when on a tour it 
is of great convenience to be able to expose on as many 
subjects as one may desire without having resource to 
the dark room for the purpose of changing the films. 
They are therefore sent out in long bands of sensitive 
tissue on rollers, which by an ingenious arrangement 
can be exposed in successive portions till the whole is 
exposed. The arrangement by which these bands of 
emulsion can be manipulated is termed a roller slide, 
and whilst there are many such in the market, the 
writer has no hesitation in recommending as the simplest 
and the best that called the Optimus, which, unlike aJl 
others, requires no alteration of the focusting screen, 
but is simply inserted as an ordinary dark slide. It pos- 
sesses also a special checking apparatus, which makes it 
impossible to wind off more than is required for one 
exposure, and also an automatic registering contrivance, 
which makes it absolutely self-chronicling, and impos- 
sible to cut the paper, except in the right place 

For developing the different kinds of fllm^, the pro- 
cesses are precisely the same as for dry-plates, and the 
beginner may either use the method and the solutions 
for developing recommended at page 27, or he may 
employ the following which is perhaps an improvement: — 

Pyro Solution. 

Pyrogallol 480 grains. 

Metabisulphite of Potash 480 „ 

Distilled water to make 15 ounces of solution. 

Bromide or Restbaining Solution. 

Ammonium Bromide 480 grains. 

Distilled water to make 4 ounces of solution. 

Ammonia Accelerator. 

Liq. Ammonia, 880 i ounce. 

Distilled water 9 ounces. 



films and paper negatives. ^^ 

Potash and Soda Accelerator. 

Carbonate of Potash 480 grains. 

„ Soda 480 ,, 

Ferrocyanide of Potash 480 „ 

Distilled water to make 10 ounces of solution. 

Hydrokinone may also be used and is one of the best 
developers for a beginner, as it is practically free from 
stain, and gives much latitude of exposure ; or the Ferrous 
Oxalate Developer, recommenJei on page 28, may be 
used. 

Hydrokinone or Quinol is one of the best developers 
for a beginner, as it is suitable alike for negative and 
positive work, and is practically free from the staining 
proclivities both of hands and film, so characteristic of 
Alkaline Pyro. It possesses also the greit advantage of 
being especially a developer which will correct to a great 
extent any errors in exposure, as by the judicious use of 
this reducing agent, gre it over-exposure may be corrected 
and negatives of good printing density be obtained, and 
likewise for under exposure it enables one to obtain a 
much better result than with Pyro, developing all possi- 
ble detail, with no risk of fog if propsrly used; it is in this 
respect far superior to Pyro or Ferrous Oxalate. Full 
insiructions are given on page 9I. 

As most of the commercial films and paper 
negatives differ slightly in their manipulation, a short 
resume of the process for each may be of some assistance. 

Eastman's Stripping Film. 

This consists of an insoluble sensitive film of gelatine 
emulsion attached temporarily to a paper support. 

Immerse the film face downwards in a dish of clean 
cold water, taking care that no air bubbles adhere to it. 
When thoroughly limp, place face upwards in a develop- 
ing dish, and pour on the developer, and proceed with 
development as recommended at page 27. When develop- 



7i; FILMS AND PAPER NEGATIVES. 

ment is completed, rinse in two or three waters, and then 
fix in the following fixing-bath : — 

Hyposulphite of Soia 4 ounces. 

Water 16 ., 

It is absolutely necessary for film- work of any kind 
that no alum or any other chamlcal should be addei to 
the fixing-bath. When thoroughly fixed, which will be 
in about ten or fifteen minutes, wash in the tank provided 
for that purpose, or by placing in a stream of running water. 
Leave it washing forhalf-an-hour, and clean a glass-plate, 
a little larger all round than the negative film, and coat 
it with the following solution : — 

Masticated India-rubbsr * 10 grains. 

Benzole ... ... i ounce. 

Allow it to dry for about five minutes, and then coat with 
enamel collodion, made as follows : — 

Pyroxylin 6 grains. 

Methylated Spirit ^-ounce. 

„ Ether ^-ounce. 

When the collodion has set, that is, when it will not drop 
from a corner of the plate, wash it thoroughly under the 
tap till the surface no longer repels water, or till the 
water runs off without any sign of greasiness ; now place 
the collodionised plate face upwards in a dish of cold 
water, bring the negative film into contact with it under 
the surface of the water, lift both out, and place film up- 
wards on a pad of blotting-paper, lay a sheet of blotting- 
paper over it, and squeegee into close contact, using 
considerable pressure in all directions to wipe off 
' superfluous water. Now place the film between sheets 
of blotting-paper for fifteen minutes, when it will ba ready 
for the stripping process. For this operation, immerse 
the glass-plate bearing the film into a dish containing 
water at about 1 50 deg. to 200 deg. Fahr, temperature, rock 
the dish slightly, and the paper will be found to gradually 
float off ; it should be entirely removed, and all adherent 



FILMS AND PAPER NEGATIVES. 79 

portions of soluble gelatine removed by brushing with a 
camel's hair brush or tuft of cotton wool. Now wash the 
film in cold water, and immerse in the clearing bath of 
alum and citric acid recommended at page 29. After 
thoroughly washing in running water for about two hours 
the film is ready for transfer to its final support, for which 
purpose a special stripping skin is prepared, which must 
be soaked in water for two minutes, not longer ; the fihn 
is brought in contact with it under water and squeeged 
into optical contact, and set aside to dry for four or five 
hours, after which period the edges may be trimmed with 
a knife, and the film easily stripped from the glass. 

Solutions used in developing the film should not exceed 
a temperature of 75 deg. Fahr., and the fingers should only 
touch the films at the corners while wet. Printing from 
these films miy be done from either side, but that which 
was in contact with the glass at the tims of the transfer 
is the right one. Ground-glass placed in the printing 
frame with the ground-glass towards the negative will 
keep the film flat, and give very soft effects. 

Morgan and Kidd's Negative Paper. 

The paper is first soaked in water and then developed 
as above, well washed and placed in an alum bath, — com- 
posed of alum 2 oz., water 20 oz., — for 5 or 10 minutes, 
well washed and then placed in a fixing bath. After 
thorougly washing again it can be placed in an alum 
and citric acid clearing bath and dried, which is best doae 
by mounting it on collodionised glass, as described under 
Eastman's Film. It will be found that a further operation 
for making the paper transparent is required, and for this 
purpose vaseline or vaseline oil, which can be obtained from 
any chemist, snould be freely applied to the paper, and 
then the negative is left in a warm room for about 12 hours 
to allow the oil to soak into the pores of the paper. After 
the lapse of 12 hours excess may be wiped off by a tuft 



8o FILMS AND PAPER NEGATIVES. 

of cotton- wool or flannel. To store these oiled negatives 
they should be preserved between sheets of paper 
impregnated with stearine, which can be obtained from 
any chemist. 

Celluloid Films. 

Notwithstanding the introduction of the above-men- 
tioned films, manufacturers have been for some time in 
search of a support even more satisfactory which should 
require no stripping, and no extra processes. And at 
the commencement of this year (1889), filnis were intro- 
duced, made of celluloid. Their treatment differs 
practically in no way from glass plates, except that they 
should be allowed to soak in water for about thirty 
seconds prior to development, and with Ouinol develop- 
ment, at least double that time. If the amateur has 
mastered the principles laid down in the previous chapter 
on development (pp. 18 — 39), he will have no difficulty in 
successfully developing these films. After fixing and wash- 
ing, a five minutes' immersion in the following bath will 
be found beneficial : — 

Glycerine, |oz. ; water, looz. 

After soaking, pass a tuft of cotton wool over the sur- 
face of film, to absorb adherent solution, and allow to 
dry by hanging up from one corner. When the surface 
is dry lay the film face down on clean paper, and clean 
the .back ofthe film with a soft cloth, or pad of flannel. 



8i 



PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE 

BY THE FERRO-PRUSSIATE, BROMIDE, 
PLATINOTYPE AND CARBON PROCESSES. 



On pages 32, 22^ and 34, will be found complete direc- 
tions for priming upon silver-albumenized paper, but here 
it is proposed to give concise directions for obtaining 
prints from a negative in other colours than those given 
by albumenized paper, such as blue, black, sepia, brown» 
red chalk and various shades of purple and black. 
Ferro-prussiate or Blue Prints. 

By this process bright-blue prints on a white ground 
are obtained, and although not pleasing to all they afford 
an agreeable relief to the monotone of albumen prints, 
and it is especially suitable for sea-scapes. It is also the 
easiest of all printing processes, easier even than that 
with silver paper, as when the print is taken no operation 
of toning is required. The paper can be bought very 
cheap, and of a bright yellowish green colour; it will keep 
almost indefinitely, if kept perfectly free from light and 
damp. The paper should be cut to the required size and 
placed in the printing frame with the coloured size next 
to the negative; the back being placed in position the 
frame is exposed to light; and the print examined from 
time to time till it is seen that the whole of the detail is 
visible in an olive bluish green shade. The paper should 
now be removed from the frame and.washed in water or. 
under a tap, when it will be seen that the image will turn 
bright-blue and the ground of the paper turn white,— the 
paper should be washed till the drippings from it are 
quite colourless. Should the paper from having been 
improperly kept or overprinted show a bluish tinge in 



82 ^ PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. ^ 

the whites, it can be dipped in a bath of ammonia, — one 
drachm to the half-pint of water — and then after 
rinsing once in a bath of hydrochloric acid of the same 
strength, the print should be allowed to dry, when 
it can be mounted in the ordinary way. 
Bromide Paper. 
By means of this, prints can be obtained more quickly 
than by any other process, but there is more trouble as 
the image is invisible till developed. The paper is coated 
with an emulsion the same as a dry plate, and is, there- 
fore, equally as sensitive to light, and great care must be 
exercised to conduct all the operations in the dark room. 
When properly manipulated it yields prints of a fine 
engraving black colour without any gloss. The paper is 
placed in the printing frame with the sensitized surface 
next to the negative ; some beginners find a difficulty in 
telling which is the sensitized surface, but there should be 
no such difficulty from the appearance, but if there is, the 
piece of paper should be laid on the palm of the hand for 
a moment when the sensitized surface will curl inwards. 
The back of printing frame being placed in position, the 
paper is then exposed to daylight for two or three seconds, 
or, preferably, to gaslight or lanlplight, as more control is 
obtained over exposure ; hold the frame about three feet 
off the gas-burner for lo, 20, or 30 seconds according to 
the density of negative, and for 30 or 40 seconds to lamp- 
light. P2xperience alone can determine the duration of 
exposure. The paper is removed from the frame in the 
dark room, and placed in the developing dish, and water 
poured on it till the paper is thoroughly limp, the water 
being then poured off. The developer, Ferrous Oxalate, 
recommended on page 28, may be used ; or the following 
is perhaps an improvement : — 
No. I. 

Neutral Oxalate of Potash .., 1440 grains. 

Distilled Water 12 ounces. 



PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. Sj 

No. 2. 

Ferrous Sulphate 540 grains. 

Sulphurous Acid 3 drops. 

Distilled Water 4 ounces. 

Add one part of No. 3 to seven parts of No. i, and add 

Sulphurous Acid i drachm, 

and two or three drops of Bromide of Potash solution 
(page 26). Pour the developer evenly on the paper, and 
the image will soon begin to start into view. When the 
whole of the detail is visible, and the print is black enough, 
it is plunged immediately, without washing, into a clear- 
ing bath of 

Acetic, Hydrochloric or Sulphuric Acid i drachm, 

Water 5 ounces, 

and allowed to remain for five minutes, and then into" 
another bath of the same strength for the same time and 
then into a third. It should be then washed in water for 
10 minutes, and fixed in a hypo bath of about four ounces 
to the pint, for about 15 minutes and then allowed to dry. 
Bromide Paper, as a rule, is sent out in three grades : — 
(a) smooth surface, thin paper, most suitable for mount- 
^^S y (^) smooth surface, thick paper, for book illustra- 
tions, and (c) rough surface thick paper, most suitable 
for enlargements of portraits and portraits by contract 
printing described above. 

Alpha Paper. 

This is somewhat similar to Bromide Paper, but yields 
prints more resembling albumenized prints by a little 
manipulation in exposing and developing. The paper 
may be exposed in the ordinary printing frame to diffused 
daylight from one to twenty seconds, according to the 
actinic power of the light and density of the negative. It 
may also be exposed to gas or lamp light, and the print- 
ing frame should be placed at about six inches from the 
flame, and an exposure varying from thirty seconds to 



84 PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. 

©I 

five minutes, will be found n-cessary. The process of 
development employed is usually the ferrous oxalate, 
recommended on pp. 28 and 83. The prints may be 
either soaked in water first, or placed in the dry state in 
the developer; if the latter plan is adopted it will be found 
that they will have a tendency to curl, but this may be 
avoided by laying the print face downwards for a second 
or two on the developer, and then turning them over, and 
immersing bodily in the developer. After development, 
the prints must be plunged at once into the following 
clearing solution, for one or two minutes : — 

Alum I ounce. 

Citric Acid i ounce. 

Water... ... ... ... ... 20 ounces. 

r^After five minutes washing in several changes of water 
they miy be placed in the following toning bath : — 

Hypo 2^ ounces. 

Sodium Acetate jounce. 

Sulphocyanide Ammonium ... 4 ounces. 

Chloride of Gold 4 grains. . 

Distilled water 10 ounces. 

Dissolve the ingredients in the order given. 

The prints should be left in this bath till on looking 
through them the desired tone is obtained, then wash in 
running water for at least an hour, and hang up to dry ; 
if an enamelled surface is desired they may be treited in 
the same way as recommended for gelatino-chloride 
prints (page 89). 

The following general hints to ensure success and 
regularity of tone, will be found useful : — 

Always use a good yellow light for the dark room 
lUuminant when working this paper. Always use artificial 
light to expose by. Always place the printin'^-frame in 
exactly the same position ; and give absolutely the same 
exposure to prints from the same negative. Clean hands 
are a s/ne qua non. Hypo should never be touched till 



PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. 85 

all the prints are developed. Do not over-develope, as 
the prints lose nothing in toning and fixing. If the prints 
are too dense, a longer soaking in the alum bath will 
reduce them. Always keep prints on the move in all 
solutions. In hot weather immerse the prints in an 
alum bath (i ounce of alum to 10 ounces of water) after 
they have been well washed on leaving the fixing and 
toning bath. Over-exposure is known by a poor, flat 
print full of half tone, but wanting in contrast and vigour 
in the shadows. Under-exposure, known by want of half 
tone and greenish tints in the shadows. 

Alpha Paper like Bromide may be developed with 
Hydrokinone (for formulas see page 94), and gives very 
fine black tones by this method of development. It 
must, however, be well washed before being put into the 
clearing solution after development. 

If the tone of the finished print, by either method of 
development, be unsatisfactory, it may be easily remedied 
by immersing the print, which if dry should be previously 
soaked in water until wet, in the Mercuric Chloride 
solution, page 29, till bleached, more or less, then washing 
thoroughly and redeveloping with Hydrokinone or 
Ferrous Oxalate ; it must be remembered, however, that 
this is a process of intensification, and, therefore care 
must be e.xercised not to carry the bleaching and redeve- 
lopment too far, so as to block up the details. The print 
should then be placed in the ordinary fixing bath for five 
minutes, and thoroughly well washed. 

Platinotype Paper. 

By this, prints are obtained of a fine black colour by 
development, the image being formed by metallic Plati- 
num, one of the most permanent metals known ; the 
results are extremely pleasing and very permanent. The 
paper is sent out by the Platinotype Company in tin 
tubes, so as to preserve it from damp which is a sure 



86 PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. 

destroyer of it. It is printed in the printing frame in the 
ordinary way, but the image is only partially visible, but 
it prints in about one-third the time of ordinary albume- 
nized paper. When printed deep enough it is developed 
upon a solution of neutral Oxalate of Potash, 130 grains 
to the ounce heated to a temperature of 1 50^^ to 170° Fahr. 
The print is placed face downward on tlie solution for 
5 or 6 seconds, and is then placed immediately in a bath 
of hydrochloric acid (i to 60), and after being moved 
about in this for ten minutes it is treated in the same way 
in two successive similar baths for like periods. The 
print is then thoroughly washed and pinned or hung up 
to dry and mounted in the ordinary way. For further 
directions the copious and complete directions issued with 
the paper must be referred to. 

The Cold Process. 

A modification of the above process has been intro- 
duced, in which, paper-coated with an iron salt, ferric 
oxalate, is exposed under a negative, till the image is 
distinctly visible, and it is then developed upon a mixed 
solution of oxalate and chloro-platinite of potash. In the 
hot process the platinum and iron salt are applied to the 
paper, but in this the platinum is deposited on the paper 
from the developer. 

It is claimed for this paper by Mr. Willis, of the Platino- 
type Company, the inventor, that several advantages 
accrue from the use of this process, viz., greater trans- 
parency in the shadows, tentative and cold development, 
shorter exposure, and easy variation in the tone of the 
resulting print. For full details the beginner is referred 
to the instructions issued by the above company. The 
question as to which is the best process depends solely 
upon the amount of work to be done, few prints and occa- 
sional are best treated by the hot process, as in this case 
the cold process is rather more expensive, but where much 
work is required the cold process should be adopted. 



printing from the negative. 67 

Printing-out Platinotype Paper. 

A process invented by Captain Pizzighelli is one well 
worth attention by any amateur. Paper-coated with a 
mixture of Ferric, and Alkaline Oxalate, and a salt 
of Platinum, with some organic matter, such as gum or 
starch, is exposed under a negative in the ordinary way, 
and when the image shows distinctly, the paper is either 
steamed by means of a kettle, or breathed upon when the 
image starts up into a permanent and pleasing black, 
formed by the reduction of the Platinum salt Full 
directions will be found in the instructions as issued by 
the makers. 

Carbon Process. 

One of the earliest and certainly in results the most 
pleasing of all processes for the production of prints, which 
can be produced in almost any colour and upon any 
material, the only objection being, that negatives which 
are reversed as regards left and right must be used 
unless what is called double transfer is used, or one of 
the fihn negatives. The full directions are so complete 
and numerous, that the amateur is referred to the 
Manual of Carbon Printing by the Autotype Company. 
The paper, or tissue, as it is called, is coated with a 
gelatine containing colouring matters, and is sensitized 
with bichromate of potash, exposad to light, the duration 
of exposure being timed by an actinometer. The paper is 
then temporarily affixed to a s ipport and developed from 
the back with water at 110° F.ihr., and the print soon 
shows in all its beauty, and is then fixed in cold water 
and alum, or is transferred to its final support. The 
paper is cheap and can be bought ready prepared, in 
which state it will keep for about a fortnight, and from 
the facility with which coloured prints are obtained, the 
process should find a place in every amateur's work. 



83 printing from the negative 

Gelatino-Chloride or Chloride Emulsion 
Printing-out Paper. 

This paper which is made by precipitating Chloride of 
Silver in a solution of Gelatine so as to make what is 
technically called an emulsion, and coating paper with 
the same, will in many instances give much finer results 
than the ordinary sensitized printing paper, which is 
coated with saked albumen, and sensitized on a solution 
of Nitrate of Silver. Fro n the character of the coating 
of the paper, it yields prints which possess much greater 
contrast and detail in the shadows, and is, for this reason, 
especially useful for thin or flat negatives wanting in these 
characteristics For those negatives possessing great 
contrast the ordinaiy albumenized paper will give better 
results. . The Gelatino-Chloride paper is printed in 
precisely the same manner as the ordinary paper, as 
directed on page 33 ; but the depth of colour should be 
rather deeper in the finished print as it loses somewhat 
more i.i toning and fixing. Care must be exercised as 
this paper is rather more liable to become discoloured and 
fctained. The prints require a slightly different method 
of toning, and the following may be considered as the 
best process to adopt. The prints must be thoroughly 
well washed in several changes of water, and then soaked 
in solution of alum (i in 20) for five minutes, and again 
washed and transferred to one of the following baths: — 

I. 

Chloride of Gold 3 grains. 

Potassium Sulphocyanide 36 „ 

Hyposulphite of Soda i-i j, 

Distilled Water 12 ounces. 

This gives purplish-brown tones of great beauty and 
richness of colour. 



PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. 



89 



II. 



Acetate of Soda 
Chloride of Gold 
Distilled Water 



I ounce. 
10 grains. 
15 ounces. 



Ammonium SulphocyaniJe ... 120 grains. 

Chloride of Gold 5 „ 

Distilled Water ... .,. ... 10 ounces. 
These solutions will keep well separately ; and for use 
must b2 mixed in the proportion of 3 ounces of b to 
10 ounces of a. This also gives good purplish tones. 

III. 



Kt 



AmniDnium Sulphocyanide 

Alum 

A-umoniun Carbonate 
Distilled Water 

b. 



\ ounce. 

h V 

2 grains. 
25 ounces. 



Chloride of Gold 

Distilled Water 

Mix by pouring 3 parts of b into 



3 grams. 
20 ounces. 
4 parts of a stirring 
constantly. This gives fine chestnut-brown tones, free 
from any bluish tint. If used more concentrated it will 
give blacker tones. 

TV. 

Combined Toning and Fixing Bath. 

Hypo 6 ounces. 

Sulphocyanide of Potash i „ 

Acetate of Soda \\ „ 

Alum ... ... ... ... 96 grains. 

Distilled Water 21 ounces. 

Fill the bottle containing this solution with scraps and 
clippings of spoilt prints, or add 100 grains of Chloride 
of Silver, and leave for twenty-four hours, and add 



90 PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. 

Chloride of Gold 15 grains- 
Chloride of Ammonium 30 ,, 

Distilled Water ... ... ... 6 ounce'^. 

When placed in this bath the prints turn bright yellow, 
and run through the scale of colours to a brilliant purplish- 
black. The preliminary alum bath is not required. 

V. 

Hypo ... ••• ••. 3 ounces. 

Chloride of Gold ... ... ... 6 grains. 

Lead Nitrate 3 grains. 

Distilled Water ... 20 ounces. 

The prints should be placed in this without being washed 
previously. 

After toning, the prints should be washed once in clean 
water, and passed into the following 
Fixing Bath. 

Hypo I ounce. 

Water ... 10 „ 

and allowed to remain for at least five minutes, and then 
washed thoroughly with frequent changes of water for at 
least an hour. 

General Maxims. 

All toning baths should be mixed at least twelve hours 
before being used. The tone of the prints must be judged 
by holding them up to the light and looldng through 
them. Extreme care must be exercised that greasy or 
hypo contaminated fingers do not touch the prints. If 
the prints refuse to tone in well defined spots, grease or 
hypK) must be susp>ected; if in irregular patches with ill- 
defined outlines, the prints must be soaked in the alum 
bath for a longer period. If the edges turn greyish- 
blue or blue before the body of the print, the toning bath 
is too strong and more water must be added. 

Prints on Gelatino-Chloride Paper may be treated in 
exactly the same way as ordinary albumen prints, but 



PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. 9I 

they should be trimmed before becoming quite dry, and 
mounted with fresh starch paste or gelatine, or by means 
of the indiarubber solution (page 78). When mounted, 
the face of the prints should be gently rubbed with a 
clean, moist wash-leather. Blotting paper must not be 
used. A very high gloss may be obtained by the follow- 
ing process : — 

A perfectly clean piece of glass, preferably of patent 
plate, a cutting glass answers well, quarter of an inch 
larger all round than the print to be dried should be 
selected, and in the centre of this pour a small pool of the 
following solution: — 

Yellow Resin ... 36 grains. 

Yellow Wax 12 „ 

Turpentine or Ether 2 ounces. 

Rub this all over the plate with a tuft of cotton wool till 
dry, and then polish with a clean piece of wool. Immerse 
the print and glass into a dish of cold water, and bring 
the print face downwards on to the waxed glass ; raise 
from the water, and by aid of a squeegee, bring both into 
intimate contact ; raise the glass bearing the print, and 
examine through the glass for any air bubbles, which may 
now be easily detected; if any are visible a piece of clean 
dry paper or indiarubber cloth should be placed over the 
print, and the squeegee again used till no bubbles are 
seen. Sheet vulcanite may also be used, or that known 
as Ferrotype Plates, these require no waxing unt^l they 
have been used for some time. Rear the glass bearing 
the print on end to dry, and when thoroughly dry one 
corner may be raised from the glass with a penknife and 
the print easily stripped from its support- To mount 
these prints they should receive before thoroughly drying 
a good coating of fresh stiff paste, and the cards should 
be damped and the prints applied ; but it must be under- 
stood that the print is stripped before being mounted. 
If there is any difficulty in stripping a print it should be 



92 PRINTING FROM THE NEGATIVE. 

placed for a few seconds before the fire, when they will 
generally leave their support of their own accord. Matt 
or dead surface prints may be obtained by treating 
ground glass with the wax solution and treating as 
described above. 



93 



HYDROQUINONE OR QUINOL 
DEVELOPMENT. 



In the chapter on Development (pp. 18-31), full instruc- 
tions have been given for the processes of Alkaline Pyro 
and Ferrous Oxalate development, but latterly Hydro- 
quinone or Quinol has come to the front as a reducing 
agent. It is met with in commerce in grey or buft* 
crystals, or brilliant needles of a slightly greenish-yellow 
hu3 : it is soluble in water about i in 30 more soluble in 
alcohol and glycerine. When exposed to the air it soon 
absorbs oxygen darkening in colour, and when kept in 
solution in water darkens also to a deep reddish brown. 
It is closely allied to Pyrogallol or Pyro in chemical 
composition. To Captain Abney belongs the credit of 
having first introduced this re agent to the photographic 
world, and for some time it was considered but a curiosity, 
and was from its high price prohibited from coming into 
general use. Numerous experiments, however, and a 
great reduction in price, led to its being more generally 
used. At first the results were extremely disappointing, 
because the best method of using it was not known; with 
ammonia as an accelerator but poor results were obtained ; 
but with the carbonates of potash and soda better 
results were given, but its action was extremely slow, 
development often being prolonged thirty or forty 
minutes. But when the Alkaline Hydrates were used, 
its value was at once recognised and it now holds a place 
almost if not equal to Pyro. It is essentially a beginner's 
developer as it allows great latitude of exposure, and may 



94 HYDROQUWONE OR QUINOL DEVELOPMENT. 

be used for any and every brand of plate or film, and is 
likewise useful for Bromide' and Alpha Papers and Lantern 
Slides. The following formulae are given as typical of 
the innumerable developers recommended. The first is 
the one we use personally, and is the one we have found, 
after numerous experiments, to be the most satisfactory 
for negative work : — 

Stock Solution of Quinol. 

Quinol 150 grains. 

Sodium Sulphite 150 „ 

Sulphurous Acid 15 minims. 

Distilled Water to make 10 ounces of solution. 

Stock Accelerator. 

Sodium Carbonate (pure) ... 1.300 grains. 

Potassium Hydrate (Caustic 

Potash in sticks) 150 „ 

Distilled Water to make 10 ounces of solution. 

For use, mix equal parts and dilute with twice or three 
times the quantity of water. One drachm of each with 
six drachms of water will be found sufficient for a quarter- 
plate which has received a normal exposure. If the plate 
has been over-exposed, or where over-exposure is known 
to exist, about ^ grain of Bromide of Potassium, or one 
drop of the Bromide Restrainer (p. 76) should be added. 
For under-exposure, dilute with twice the quantity of 
water, or soak the plate first in the diluted accelerator, 
and then add the Hydroquinone solution after a minute 
or two. 

Dr. Herklots Vos strongly recommends the following, 
which will be found a good formula also : — 

Solution I. 

Quinol 4 grains 

Sodium Sulphite 24 „ 

Distilled Water i ounce 



HYDROQUINONE OR QUINOL DEVELOPMENT. 95 

Solution 2. 

Potassium Bromide 60 grains. 

Distilled Water to make 10 drachms of solution. 

Solution 3. 

Potassium Hydrate 2 ounces. 

Distilled Water i „ 

For normal exposure add five drops of No. 2 and No. 3 
solutions to one ounce of No. i and allo\r development to 
continue for some few minutes, then add another portion 
of No. 3 to obtain the required density. For under- 
exposure reduce the quantity of No. 2 solution to two 
drops, and gradually increase the accelerator No. 3 ; for 
over-exposure increase No. 2 to ten drops to the ounce. 
The above quantities are for a quarter-plate. The 
following is that recommended by a well-known firm of 
plate makers:^ 

No. I. 

Quinol 160 grains. 

Sodium Sulphite 2 ounces. 

Citric Acid ... ... ... ... 60 grains. 

Potassium Bromide 30 „ 

Distilled Water 20 ounces. 

No. II. 

Sodium Hydrate 160 grains. 

Distilled Water 20 ounces. 

For use mix equal parts of each. 

The above formulae will be found all that can be desired 
for negative work; but for positives, either on paper or 
on glass as transparencies, the following will be found 
very effective for black tones: — 

Stock Solution I. 

Quinol 120 grains. 

Sodium Su'phite ... 360 „ 

Sulphurous Acid 18 minims- 

Distilled W^ater to make 8 ounces. 



96 HYDROQUINONE OR QUINOL DEVELOPMENT. 

Stock Solution II. 

Sodium Carbonate 960 grains. 

Potassium Hydrate 120 „ 

Potassium Bromide 16 ,, 

Distilled Water to make 8 ounces. 
Mix in equal parts, and dilute with three times the 
quantity of water. The following will give a good purple 
tone to transparencies on glass, and brownish-fawn to 
Bromide paper : — 

Quinol 2 grains 

Ammonium Carbonate ... ... 24 „ 

Ammonium Bromide ^ „ 

Distilled Water .... i ounce. 

Mix immediately before using. 

In using Quinol as a developer there are one or two 
general principles which should not be lost s'ght of. 
Absolutely clean dishes must be used ; any dish which 
has been used for pyro is unsuitable, and will stain the 
negative. The best results in negative work are obtained 
by using fresh developer for each plate, but the old deve- 
loper need not be thrown away but may be placed in a 
separate bottle and use 1 for over-exposed plates. For posi- 
tive work, fresh developer for every plate or print is not so 
much a necessity, an old developer working well for three 
or more plates. Negatives and positives should be well 
washed after developing and prior to fixing. The Hypo 
or Fixing Bath should not be allowed to get very dis- 
coloured or stains will ensue. And lastly, all plates 
whether negative or positive, should be cleared by the 
clearing solution recommended on page 29. 



97 



DETECTIVE OR HAND CAMERAS. 



During the last twelve months a subject which has at- 
tracted much attention, is the use of detective or hand 
cameras ; which may be defined as apparatus, by means 
of which photographs may be taken without the know- 
ledge of the general public. It is in such work as the 
taking of street views, marine pictures and photographs 
of rapidly-moving objects, and in the capture of the 
natural pose and expression of the unconscious human 
subjects, that the value of the hand camera is felt, as by 
its unobtrusive appearance, and the absence of all the 
somewhat tedious usual preparations which too oftea 
attract attention and destroy all natural charm, and give 
rise to that stiffness and self- consciousness which with 
most people seem to be the natural concomitant of 
" having their Ukeness took." 

One of the earliest of this class of camera was 
the Book-shaped Camera,'' which notwithstanding 
many later introductions, can still hold its own for 
simplicity and effectiveness ; but now something a little 
more elaboate has been called for, as the use of this 
class of camera has been much extended, so as ta 
include general all-round work. It would be impossible- 
within reasonable limits to review in detail the great 
number which have been introduced to public notice,, 
but a short consideration of the principal features of the 
various working parts will enable anyone to become 
at once a better judge of the practical efficiency of any 
instrument. 



98 detective or hand cameras. 

The Lens. 
The best form is undoubtedly that of the Rapid 
Euryscope. This working, as it does, at an aperture- 
approximately one-sixth of its focal length, or f/6, renders 
it invaluable for extremely brief exposures. The next 
most suitable lens is the Raoid Rectilinear, which works 
with an effective aperture of f/8 ; then the Rapid View of 
the same aperture; and lastly the Wide Angle Euryscope 
working at f/9.50. It is essential that the lens besides 
being rapid, should possess that quality called depth of 
focus, or ability to define upon one plane, objects at vary- 
ing distances from the lens, and as this quality decreases 
with an increase of focal length, lenses of comparatively 
short focus are used. 

The Shutter. 

This should be capable of adjustment from a very 
•rapid to a comparatively slow exposure. The speed at 
which the shutter should work will depend to a great 
extent upon the nearness and rapidity of movement of 
the objects in the field of view— -not much assistance can 
be given on this point, experience alone will enable the 
worker to decide this. 

Diaphragms or Stops. 

Many operators assume that the use of a Diaphragm 
or Stop is not only unnecessary, but an evil when using 
a shutter at high speed ; this, however, is a fallacy 
Except for dull days and for subjects with very heavy 
shadows, such as street views, &c., the open aperture of 
the lens is rarely necessary ; very fine work may and can 
be done with f/io, f/ii and even f/i6 ; for beach or marine 
work, in brilliant sunshine, the latter is the largest aper- 
ture which should be used. 

Focussing. 

Many uand cameras, especially those which have some 
Automatic plate-changing arrangement, are not fitted with 



DETECTIVE OR HAND CAMERAS. 99 

any focussing screen ; but we do not think this at all a 
desirable omission, and would be sufficient for us at least 
to reject the same, as our idea of the perfection of a 
hand camera is one which may be used for either work, 
that is, instantaneous or the ordinary time exposures with 
a stand. With lenses of short focus, focussing is not an 
absolute necessity, as there is always a point beyond which 
everything is sharp when the lens is racked out to its 
equivalent focus, and this may be easily found by experi- 
ment, or the following table will be of assistance, as 
showing approximately the nearest point in focus, with a 
doublet lens of given focus and aperture — 



Focus. 


f/6. 


f/8 


f/ii 


f/i6. 


4ins. 


lift. 


9ft. 


6ft. 


4ft. 


4iins. 


14 » 


II » 


9„ 


6„ 


sins. 


19,, 


14,, 


II, » 


8» 


Siins. 


21 „ 


16 „ 


12,, 


9» 


6ins. 


24,, 


17,, 


14,, 


10 „ 



With a Rapid View lens of 5 in. focus, anything beyond 
about 15ft. will be in focus with f/io or f/ii, with f/8 
about 20ft. 

Dark Slides, Roller Slides, Changing Boxes. 

The question as to which of these three appliances is 
the best is purely a personal equation, as the decision 
will rest on the purpose for which the camera is desired,, 
and the predilection of the owner ; as should he have a 
penchant for films, then a roller slide will become a 
necessity. The question as to dark slides or an auto- 
matic-changing arrangement will depend to some extent 
for decision upon the work for which the camera is in- 
tended. If for detective or hand work alone, then the 
absence of a focussing screen, which is the necessary 
feature of these cameras is not so much felt. And again 
another advantage of using dark slides is that one is 
not bound to use one particular brand or rapidity of 



100 DETECTIVE OR HAND CAMERAS. 

plate, as many different kinds as holders may thus be 
tried, and the plate adapted to the special work in 
hand selected. 

Fjnders. 

1^0 matter what the opinion of some few may be, we 
consider at least one if not two Finders an absolute 
necessity, as nothing is more annoying than to make 
sure that you have included the whole of some parti- 
cular scene or object upon your sensitive plate, and 
then to find upon development that, notwithstanding 
your conviction upon this point, only half or part of the 
desired object is to be seen. The writer worked for 
some months without a Finder till, on a particular occa- 
sion, the much-desired object was conspicuous by its 
absence in one, and by being cut in half in another 
plate, both of which had been fired off on a certain 
occasion, the like of which would not occur again for 
twelve months. After that he mounted two Finders. 
Should any doubt exist as to their function, their use- 
fulness will at once be appreciated when the explana- 
tion is given that a Finder shows in miniature, and not 
reversed, the subject thrown upon the sensitive surface 
by the lens; thus in the case of photographing any 
moving object, such as a yacht, the right moment, when 
the vessel is in the centre of the plate, may be seen, 
and the exposure made. 

Having thus briefly considered the essentials for a hand 
camera, it only remains for us to give one or two general 
hints which may be of service. First, as to the plates to 
be used for ordinary instantaneous work, we undoubtedly 
recommend the most rapid that can be obtained, those 
marking 24 or 25 on Warnerke's Sensitometer; but at the 
same time one or two plates of a lower degree of rapidity 
should also be carried for time exposures. Secondly, as 
to the size, the most convenient will be found the quarter- 
plate or 4l by S^ins., as from this size lantern slides may 



DETECTIVE OR HAND CAMERAS. lOI 

easily be made by contact printing, or they lend them- 
selves equally well for the purpose of enlargement. Thirdly, 
as to the development of the plates. Rapid plates are 
-most difficult of all to develope successfully, even when 
they have received time exposure of from ^sec. and 
upwards, but when only the fractional part of a second, 
such as lioj 5o and so on have been given, then the 
successful development is a feat to be proud of The 
method we strongly recommend is to soak the plate first 
ofallinthe alkah or accelerator, either ammonia p. 21; 
soda, p. ']'] ; or potash, p. 27 ; then add after about one 
minute's soaking, \ grain of pyro or hydroquinone, and 
allow all detail to appear, then add more pyro or hydro- 
quinone to allow the required density to be gained ; in fact 
a very good plan, which originated we believe in America, 
is to soak the plate first of all in the accelerator and then 
transfer to the pyro or hydroquinone, allowing only the 
accelerator absorbed by the film to enter the second bath. 
This will usually be found sufficient, but if not, a slight 
addition of alkali to the pyro or hydroquinone will give 
the required density. 

The Detective or hand camera shown in p. 113 is one 
which will be found to answer most effectively every 
requirement of the practical worker in this branch. A 
neat black leather covered box, 9^ by 5^ by 7iins., un- 
suspicious in character, encloses a camera, with space for 
six double-dark slides (three only being sent out with the 
camera), a sectional view of the same is given in p. 113; 
the other diagram gives a general idea of the external ap- 
pearance and likewise gives the arrangements of itsworking 
parts. A sliding panel covers the lens when not in use, and 
an Euryscope, Rapid Rectilinear, or Rapid View Lens is 
supplied according to the length of the purchaser's purse. 
The shutter is so arranged that time or instaneous ex- 
posures may be given, the fastest being about the j^ sec. 
The diaphragms are inserted in the lens tube in the usual 



102 DETECTIVE OR HAND CAMERAS. 

manner upon opening the lid of the box. The dark slides 
are of specially light form, and the shutters pull right out, 
and the slides being much cheaper than the ordinary ones, 
allow more to be obtained without inordinate outlay. Two 
Finders are also fitted, which show the subject included 
on the plate when it is either vertical or horizontal; and a 
screw hole in the base enables it to be used upon a stand if 
desired. 



103 



PHOTO-MECHANICAL PRINTING 
PROCESSES. 



So far this manual has treated of the production of 
negatives by photography, rather for the purpose of 
amusement than for any large commercial project, but 
it must not be supposed that the province of photography 
ends there. It is almost universal in its applications and 
the valuable aid which it renders to science, literature* 
and art. The illustrations for many of our serial 
illustrated magazines are in many cases effected almost 
entirely through the agency of the camera, and the 
processes by which these re-productions are made are 
termed Photo-mechanical, because photography in con- 
junction with a mechanical printing process is used. It 
would be impossible to enter at any length into minutiae 
and working details of the different processes, but the 
following short resume may give a general idea of the 
whole subject. Every process is founded upon the 
chemical action which light sets up in a mixture of 
gelatine and an alkaline salt of chromium. The precise 
chemical action is practically immaterial, but its results 
most important; its effect is to render the gelatine acted 
upon by light insoluble and incapable of absorbing 
water. The various processes may be divided into four 
classes : — 

I. — Typographic Blocks, which are blocks, the ground- 
work of which is eaten away by some acid liquid, leaving 
the image in relief or raised up like any ordinary type; 
these blocks are chiefly used for illustrating serial papers. 

2. — Plates in which the image is bitten, by the use of 
an acid liquid, leaving the groundwork untouched; the 
image is said to be etched in intaglio. 

3.— Woodbury type, in which the image is on a very 



104 PHOTO-MECHANICAL PRINTING PROCESS. 

thick gelatine film which is used to obtain a mould or 
impression on metal 

4.— Collotype or Heliotype, in which the film itself is 
printed from. 

I .—Typographic Blocks:— To prepare these the subject 
to be re- produced is copied by the collodion process, and 
after development the resulting negative is strongly- 
intensified till the image shows as bare glass upon an 
absolutely opaque background. A print is taken from 
this negative in the printing frame in the ordinary way^ 
upon paper coated with chromated gelatine, and after 
exposure taken from the frame and given a thin coating 
of printing ink, and soaked in cold water, when it is found 
that the printing ink will leave the gelatine in those parts- 
protected from the action of light and only adhere to the 
image. This gelatine print in greasy ink, is now placed 
face downwards upon a sheet of zinc and passed through 
a press, when the ink leaves the paper and adheres to- 
the zinc. The image on the plate is then further charged 
with ink and then etched, special precautions being taken 
to prevent the lines of the image from being eaten away 
by the etching fluid; when etched deep enough, the 
plate is printed from in the ordinary way in an ordinary 
steam-press. 

2. — Plates etched in Intaglio : — By this process some 
of the most beautiful pictures of the day are produced. 
A film of chromated gelatine is exposed under a positive 
in the printing frame and developed. As in the carbon 
process the result is a film of gelatine bearing a picture 
in which the blacks are represented by little elevations 
and the whites by depressions; this film may be attached 
to a copper-plate and etchings begun at once, or it may 
be covered with powdered graphite and a mould taken 
from it by electrolysis. The plate when finished has to 
have the ink rubbed into the depressions representing 
the image, and the surface of the plate thoroughly 
cleaned between each impression taken from it. 



PHOTO-MECHANICAL PRINTING PROCESS. I05 

3, — Woodburytype :— A film of chromated gelatine 
is exposed under a negative as usual, and cemented 
face downwards on to a sheet of glass, and washed lor 
some hours under hot water; allowed to dry and stripped. 
It has at this period the apperance of an extremely 
thin transparent piece of silk, with the picture slightly 
in relief. It is then placed on a sheet of hard rolled 
lead and a plate of steel placed above it, and a pressure 
varying from one to five hundred tons brought to bear on 
it. The gelatine film is forced into the lead and makes an 
impression the same as a seal on hot sealing wax, the film 
itself being unharmed and ready to make any number 
of such moulds. The lead with the impression on it is 
now put into a press and special hot liquid gelatine ink 
is poured on to it, and a sheet of paper laid on top; 
pressure is brought to bear upon it, and the ink leaves 
the parts where there is no impression, collecting in the 
depression. The ink is allowed to get cold and the paper 
stripped, bearing the image with it; it is then washed in 
alum and dried. 

4- — Collotype : — The most simple of all the processes 
A film of chromated gelatine fastened to a glass or 
metal plate, is exposed under a reversed negative, washed 
and dried; only a very faint image can be seen at this 
point. The plate is now put in a press and damped 
with water and printer's ink ai plied with a roller, when 
it is found that the ink will adhere to those parts acted 
upon by light; the shadows in the picture will take 
most ink, the whites none. Paper is placed on the inked 
film and both passed through the lithographic press, and 
the result is the finished print. 

For further instructions in these photo-mechanical 
processes, the amateur is referred to Wilkinson's " Photo- 
Mechanical Printing," 

E. J. W. 



PERKEN, SON & RAYMENT'S 

OPTICAL 



AND 



SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS. 



DPECTACLES, 

Eye Glasses* 
Folders, Hand 
Frames, Lenses 
t-ither Spherical, 
Cylindrical, 
Sphero - Cylin- 
drical, or Pris- 
matic, White or 
Coloured Glass- 
es of all Foci. 

OPERA, Field,oi 
Marine Glasses 
of every descrip- 
tion. 



TELESCOPES, Binoc- 
u'ar of Highest Power. 

TELESCOPES, Mon- 
ocular, Powerful. 

MICROSCOPES, Mi- 
croscopic Objects, Cab- 
inets, Lamps, and all 
Accessories. 

THERMOMETERS, 

Clinical, Chemical, Air, 
Sixes, Maximum and 
Minimum, &c., &c. 

BAROMETERS, Mer- 
curial, Board of Trade, 
Marine, Pit, & House- 
hold. 




ANEROIDS 

Ships' Clocks, 
Sextants, Com- 
passes. 

MATHEMAT- 
ICAL & SUR- 
VEYING IN- 
STRUMENTS, 

Theodolites, 
Rules, Scales, 
T-Squares, Set 
Squares.Curves, 
Spirit Levels, 
Compasses. 



ELECTRIC Bells, 
Pushes, Batteries, 
Ma.jnetic Machines, 
Coils, Galvanometers, 
Lamps, Wire. Agents 
^or Gaiffe, Paris. 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 
INSTRUMENTS, Hy- 

drometers, Salinome • 
ters, Saccharometers, 
&c., &c 

STEREOSCOPES, 

Graphoscopes, Praxin- 
oscopes, Readhig and 
other Magnifiers,Cam- 
era Obscura. 



Tkadi: Discount Lisr ox amplication. 



108 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 

SPECTACLES, EYE GLASSES, 

&c., &c. 

Convex or Concave Glasses, blue steel spectacle frames, from 5?. to 42s. perdoz. 
„ „ Grooved Glasses, curl-side steel spectacle frames, 

from 12s. to 42s. per doz. 
„ „ Glasses, gold spectacle frames, per pair, 

12s. 6d., 17s. 6d., 25s., 30s., 40s. 
Double Eye glasses, (folding), steel frames, 9d. to 42s. per pair. 

,, „ tortoise-shell frames, 12s. to 30s. per pair. 

„ „ steel frames, grooved glasses, 

12s. to 36s. per pair. 
„ „ gold frames, 12s. Gd., 17s. Gd., 25s.. 30s., 40s. 

Single „ (Oxfords) 3s. to 9s. per doz. 

Best Brazilian Pebbles to Spectacles or Eye Glasses, extra, Convex, 24s. to 100s 

„ „ „ cut in the axe, extra, 42s. to 72s. 

Coloured Spectacle Lenees of various tints, either concave, convex, 

globular, or parallel. 

Ladies' Hand Frames either of Tortoise-shell or Gold, inlaid or jewelled. 

Cylindrical, Sphero-cylindrical Spectacles for cases of Astigmatism, 

specially made to Oculist's formulas. 

Cases, for Oculists, containing Lenses for testing sight (spherical, cylin' 

drical, prismatic) Trial Frames, Stenopaic Discs, &c., &c, 

MAGNIFYING GLASSES FOR PICTURES, 
READING, &c. 

Reading and Picture Magnifiers, in shell, ivory and metal, (fcc, 6d., 9d., Is., 

Is. Gd., 28. 6d., 3s. Gd., 58., 10s., 12s. Gd., 15s. 

„ „ „ (cylindrical), in shell ivory, metal, &c., 

7s. 6d., 10s. Gd., los., 208., 30s. 40s. 
High-power Magnifying Glasses for Botanists, in ebonite, shell, or metal 
Is., Is. Gd.,^s. Gd., 38. 6d., 58. 10s., 16s. 

GRAPHOSCOPE, STEREOSCOPES, &c. 

In Black Wood, ornamented with gold or painted flowers, 4s., 58., 9s., 12s. 
G rapho-Stereoscopcs combined, 12s., 18s., 24s., 38s. 

„ "Walnut wood, superior, 5in. lens, 48s. ; Gin., GOs. 

Stereoscopes, 3s. 9d., 5s.; Achromatic, 13s., 15s., 198., 30s. 40s. 
„ on pedestal stands, 258., 30s., 408. 50s. 
„ Revolving, lor 50 slides, GOs. 
100 „ 1308. 

PEDOMETERS. ^ , ^. 

In Nickel-plated cases, registering to 12 miles ... ... 10 C 

Ditto, Silver cases (Hall-marked) ... ... ... ...10 

Tkade Di.scount Lisr on Application. 




100 
MRKEN, SOK, & RAYME^ r, U.), ITatton Garden, LONDO:fT. 

OPERA, FIELD AND MARINE GLASSES, 

OPERAS, Achpomatic, in Cases. 

Diam. of Object-glass 

Morocco-cov'd bodies : 

Japanned mounts... 

„ better qlty. 

,, 121ens,supr. 

Ivory Bodies : 

Gilt mounts 

„ 12 lens, supr. 
Pearl bodies : 
Gilt mounts 

„ velvet cases, 12 lens, superior ... 
Alumioium mounts, superior 

Morocco or Eussia 
Pearl bodies 
Tortoise-shell bodies 
Inlaid Pearl, Ivory or Enamelled Codies, very 

handsome, superior CO 90 125 loC 180 

FIELD AND MARINE, Achromatic, in Sling Cases. 

Diam. of Object-glass i 3-s i 5-s if 2 21 

Morocco bodies : s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. 

Japanned mounts ...15 18 24 28 G '6i 

„ better ... 32 35 38 6 41 

Morocco or Russia, 12 lens, 

superior ... ... 40 44 .50 56 GO 

Japian'dmnts.,121ens, supr. 34 3G G 41 G 4G G .50 
Aluminium, 12 lens, supr. 102 144 138 155 175 
For 2-draw Field or Opera Glasses, ad^ extra 10s to 30s. 
For Bending Bar ditto to adjust centres, add extra 123 Cd. 

to 34s. 
Marine Glasses, specially adapted for night use. having lar 
and eye-pieces, 40s. to 50s. 



11-8 


15-lG 


U 1 5-8 1 7-S 


.S-. d. 


f<.d. 


s. d. s. d. s. d. 


G 9 


7 3 


9 11 6 13 3 


15 


20 


24 28 G 32 


21 9 


27 


32 3G 42 


14 G 


ISO 


23 27 42 


30 


38 


45 50 GO 


.^0 


3G 


41 48 GO 


57 G 


GG 


95 120 150 


48 


CO 


G8 77 90 


40 


50 


57 G4 75 


(:(; 


79 


93 108 130 


CO 


79 


94 108 130 




;e objoct-glasscJ 



BINOCULAR TELESCOPES. 

Magnifyinjr from 12 to 25 diameters, or 144 to 57G times. 
The definition will be found exceptionally fine. 



Arrangement for adjusting 



Avidth between Eye-pieces. 
Diam. of Object-glass. 



^I^PJB ^o^oc^^o o^^^u^sii^ bodies : \-^ 


IV 


H 


H 


IJ 


^H^l ^H Japanned mounts,witli s. d. 


, ... k 


d. 


s. d. 


s.d. 


^H 11 I^B sun or spray shades 


125 


135 


l-iS 


2G0 


^HMi^H^ Aluminium mnts., shades ... 


200 


2G5 


298 


415 


^^B^^V^B Morocco Conical bodies : 










^H ^H Japanned mounts, no 










^H ^H shades... ... 84 


92 


100 


... 


'\' 


SK «^P Tbe above prices include Sling Case. 





Trade Discount List on Application. 



no 



PERKEK, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Gal^den, LONDOK". 



' OPTIMUS ' 

DWARF OPERA, 

Leather Covered, 

15/- 




' OPTIMUS 



GUINEA OPERA, 

Morocco Covered, 

21/- 



111 



' OPTIMUS ' 

PEARL OPERA, 
25/- 




' OPTIMUS ' 

ALUMINIUM 
50/- OPERA. 




'OPTIMUS' ECONOMIC 

FIELD GLASS. 



Small Size .. 

Clear Definition 

Good Field of View Magni- 
fying 16 times 



21/- 



'OPTIMUS' SCORER. 



^30/- 



Is unrivalled for excellence 
and cheapness. It shows 
the number of people in 
o^ats four miles distant, 
Sea-birds one mile distant, 
and Bullet-marks on Target 
at COO yards. 

Magnifying 25 times. 



'OPTIMUS' SCOUT. 



Medium Size 

Clear Definition 

Good Field 

High Magnifying Power 
(64 times). 



I 70/ 




'OPTIMUS' 

BINOCULAR OR DOUBLE 

TELESCOPE. 



This Instrument has Bending Bar "l 
for Exact Visual Adjustment... 

The Size is Moderate , 

The Definition is Crisp 1 

Very high (144 times) Alagnifyingj 

If with Shades, as Dbgram 



80/- 
}100/- 



For General Excellence, Definition, and 
Maf^iiifynf^ Po7ver, ive invite in/endinj; 
Purchasers to tist our Field and Opera 
Glasses against any in the world 

Opera Glasses in great variety. 




Trade Discount List on Application. 



Ill 



PERKEN, SON, & RAYMEKT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 

'OPTIMUS' 

TELESCOPES. 

ACHROMATIC. 




lin. 1-1?^ 
s. d. s, d. 
5 9 8 
7 10 6 



but 



'Diameter of object glass 
Morocco covered bodies — 
Brass mounts, 8 draws 

,. „ and spray or sun shades 

" Tourist " Morocco-covered bodies— 

Brass mounts, 3 draws and cap and sling- ... 
Oxidised mounts, 3 draws, cap and sun shades 
Diameter of object glass lyV 
"Army " Morocco-covered bodies— s. d. 

Oxidised mounts, 4 draws ... 

" Navy " or " Day and Night" Morocco-covered bodies — 

1 draw, with shades ... ... 30 

" Government," Morocco-covered bodies — 

Pancratic, 3 draws, with shades 
"Yachtsman," Morocco-covered bodies — 

Tapered, 1 draw, with shades ... 
" Rifleman's," Morocco-covered bodies— 

2 draws, exceptionally portable, 
having high power 

With still higher power 
" Deerstalker," Morocco-covered bodies— 

3 draws, cap and sling 
'• Viceroy," Morocco-covered bodies, 3 draws 
" Empress," for ladies' use, being very light — 

Polished Aluminium bodies, covered 

with superior leather, 3 draws ... 80 95 
Wood Tripod Stands for Telescopes, with gutter tops, 

13s. to 30s. 

ASTRONOMICAL. 

Diameter of object glass 1 jV 

Poibable, Morocco-covered, terres and celes s. d. 

eye-pieces 

„ on wood tripod stand for table, fitted 

in cabinet, complete 

Diameter of object glass 

Brass body, best finish, rack motion for focussing, 

mounted on brass claw stand, vertical and 

horizontal adjustment, terrestrial and celestial 

eye-pieces, fitted in cabinet, complete 

Diameter of object glass 
Superior, as above, fitted with finder, rack steady- 
ing rods, 2 terrestrial and 2 celestial eye-pieces, 
on best rigid stand, in cabinet, complete ... 



12 6 
15 6 

ItV 
s. d. 
31 



42 



34 



29 



2r) 6 
25 



s. d. s. d. 

15 21 

17 G 23 

19 27 

23 30 

If 2 

s. d. 8. d. 

41 58 

41 GO 
54 72 

42 57 



34 

40 



9 



44 
40 



... 130 
adjustable, 



1t^ lU 
s. d. s. d. 
18 23 



2i 2i 



9 
3 

£s. 



10 5 
3| 

£s. 



34 

21 

£s. 



14 
4 

£s. 



IG 10 

£ s. 



30 35 54 70 



Trade Piscount List on Application, 



112 



PERKEF, SON, ,^z RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




OPTIMUS' MICROSCOPES. 



£ s. d. 



G 3 
3 2 



3 6 6 



Youth's, French, made with single objective, in 
wood case 
,. Superior, lis. 3d., 15s. 9d., £1, £1 6s., 
£1 15s., £2 Is., 
Student's, English made, dividing objectives, 
giving 3 powers ... 
„ Superior, with rack adjustment, with 
2 eye - pieces — 2 objectives — con- 
denser, &c., &c.', £5 10s., £7 10s., ]0 
University, dividing objective, giving 3 powers ... 3 3 
Monocular, rack and pinion adjustment— glass 
stage, reflector, condenser, 2 eye- 
pieces— 2in., lin. and \\n. objectives 15 
Monocular, as above, with Polarizing apparatus. 3 eye-pieces— 

2in., lin., ^in. and ^in. objectives, double nose-piece... 22 10 
„ Large size, circular revolving stage, graduated, 
milled heads to slow motion, suited for examining 
sections of crystals— 3 eye-pieces, 2in., ^in., ^in. 
and -loin, objectives ... ... ... ... 38 10 

Binocular bodies, having the necessary additional eye-pieces 

suitable for the instrument ... extra from £4 to 9 

Dissecting microscope, complete ... ... ... ... 2 10 



Inches 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


f 


1 

2 


\ 


\ 


i 


* 


iV 


tV 


Microscopic Objectives 


25 


25 


25 


25 


2 5 




40 


35 


40 


48 


65 






Ditto, 1st quality- 




























Angular aperture 


9° 


12« 


16" 


20° 


21" 


30" 


80" 


lOO'' 


IOC 


150" 


140° 


145° 


150° 


Greatest magnifying 




























power ... diameters 


72 


112 


140; 196 


280 


420 


620 


1400 


1480 


1820 


2380 5200 


6400 




26/0 


40 


40 \ 46 


40 


50 


77 


88 


105 


125/ 


135/1108/ 


210/' 



The first quality, half-inch and higher powers, are fitted with screw collar 
arrangement for adjusting distance according to thickness of covering glass. 





£ s. 


d. 


£ *. 


d. 


Polarising Apparatus 


... 1 2 





Section Cutting Machines 




Parabola 


... 16 





from 9 





Spot Lens 


... 8 





Air Pump, with tray,&c. „ 15 





Double Nose-piece 


... 12 


6 


Microscopic Object Boxes 




Live Cage 


... 3 





Is. 4d., 2s.,2s. 6d., 




Stage Forceps ... 


... 3 





3s. 6d., 4s., 9 





Camera Lucida 


... 12 


6 


„ Object Cabinets, 




„ Wollaston's I 4 





mahogany, 40s. 3 





Lieberkuhn 


... 




„ Lampp^ with Shades 




Stand Condensers 5s. 


9d., 




(is., 10s. 6d., lis. 1 





78. 6d., 


15s., 1 





„ Dissecting Knives, 




Turn-table ... from 4 





Scissors, Forceps, &c. 




All Microscopic 


Accessories^ i 


ncluding objects (mounted and un- 


mounted), supplied to order on t 


ho n 


lost reasonable terms. 





Tkade Discount List on Application, 



113 



PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON 



OPTIMUS' ANEROID BAROMETERS. 

g. d. 

Watch size, (1^ or 2 iiicli dial), Hard 
Enamel 26s. 6d.; Engraved 

Silvered 30 

„ with, mountain scale, Enam- 
elled 28s. 6d. ; Engraved sil- 
vered 8,000 feet 33s.; 10,000 
feet 36s. ; 12,000 feet ... 42 

„ first quality compensated 

silvered dial ... ... 42 

„ first quality mountain scale 
silvered dial, 10,000ft. 50s. ; 
12,000ft. 54s.; 15,000ft. ... 05 

Pocket size,(2^ or 3inchdial),compensated 48 
Pocket size, with mountain scale, compensated, 10,000ft, 66s.; 

15,000 feet, 75s. ; 20,000 feet ... .,. ... 8S 

Keyless motion for revolving altitude scale ... ... (extra) 8 

Thermometers on dials ... ... ... ... >» 3 

Gold or Silver cases, hall-marked, extra according to weight. 

Mining and Surveying Aneroid supplied to order. 

ANEROIDS IN BRA.SS CIRCULAR MOUNTS and outside Boxes. 




Card Dials ... 12 
Enamelled Dials 22 
Silv'rd engraved 22 



5-inch. 

s. d. 
6 





Superior 
6 



S. 
22 
29 
33 



.«. 

36 
44 

49 



Extra quality, with Thermometer 
5 6 8 



38 

54 

58 

£ s. 



Aneroids as above, fitted into carved oak and other wood cases, 
extra according to workmanship ... from 8s. 6d. to 

Barograph by means of clock-work revolving drum carrying 
chart, the variations of atmospheric pressure are recorded 



5 

6 6 



Kew verifications supplied with above instruments for a small extra charge. 

MERCURIAL BAROMETERS. 

£ s. 
Fitz.roy, in wood frames ... 9s. 6d., 128. 6d., 208. I 5 
Ditto Carved ... &l 10s.; £1 ISs. ; £2 88. 3 2 
Wheel pattern frames 6in. dial 18s.; 8in. 26s. ; lOin. 118 
Ditto, Superior ... 30s.; Sin. 48s. ; lOin. 3. 8 
Pediment, in Oak, Rosewood, Walnut or Ma- 
hogany, Fig. 1, £1 4s., £1 10s., £2 18s., £4. 7 10 
Marine Barometer Avith Sympiesometcr vernier 

and gymbals. Fig.- 2 ... ... £3 15s. 4 10 

Standard Bxrometer ... £7 10s., £12 12s. 22 10 

Board of Trade ... ... ... ... 3 10 

Fig. 1 




Trade Discount List on ArPLicATioN, 



114 



PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDOX. 

MATHEMATICAL INSTRUMENTS^ 

Sets, French make, in £ s. d« 
wood boxes, com- 
plete, Is., Is. P.d., 
]s. 9d., 3s., Os., 10s., 1 5 
English, in Mahogany 
case, containing G-in. 
electrum long-joint 
compabs ink and 
pencil points and 
lengthening bar, ink 
and pencil bows, 
drawing pen, pro- 
tractor, and ebony 
parallel ... each 1 10 
Rosewood case, containing G-inch electrum long-joint compass, 
ink and pencil points and lengthening bar, divider, ink and 
pencil bows, drawing pen, ivory protractor, and ebony parallel 2 2 
Rosewood case, containing the following long-joint instru- 
ments :- G-inch compass with ink and pencil points and 
lengthening bar, divider, ink and pencil bows, set of three 
spring bows, two drawing pens, ivory protractor, and parallel 2 12 

'OPTIMUS' THERMOMETERS. 




^^,.,,„,,,..,,r,r.,..,^H|.p;Nn' l 1 i rTPfiir 



Clinical Indestructible, in boxwood or s. d. s. d. 

German silver cases ... ... 4 and 5 in. 3 6 in. 3 6 

„ Indestructible Magnifying lens 

fronts 4 and 5 ., 6 G 6 „ 7 6 

Chemical, for immersion, 150°, Is.; 220«>, Is. 6d.; 300«', 3s.; 400'',48.; G00°,5s 

8-inch ] 0-inch 12-inch 

Flc. 1. Air, mounted on boxwood, spirit or s. d. s. d. s. d. FiG. 2. 

mercury, enamelled tubes ... 5 10 2 
superior, mounted on boxwood, 
spirit or mercury, enamelled 

tubes ... ... 1 C 2 6 3 6 

Minimum, spirit, enamelled 

tubes 9 16 

Minimum, superior, spirit, 

en imelled tubes 2 3 

Minimum, on porcelain, spirit 1 10 4 G 6 
superior, on porcelain, spirit 

Fig. 15 6 G 8 

Sixes, on boxwood 5 G G 8 

„ on porcelain or opal glass 9 11 12 1) 
Bath, or Brewer's, on metal scales, 

Fig. 2 JO 16 2 6 
Ditto, on porcelain scales, Forbes 

specifications 8 3 

Ditto, metal scales, oopper cases ... 1 10 3 5 




il^rrr.r^ 



115 

OPINIONS OF ' OPTIIVIUS' PHOTOGRA PHICILENSES. 

6 

We now turn to the " Optimus Rapid Eury scope," manufactured by 
the firm of Perken, Son, and Rayment, Hatton Garden, an example of 
which is on a camera on our editorial talsle. With its full aperture of If 
in. (its equivalent focus bein^ 1 1 in.) it defines with extreme brilliancy, 
and when used with a stop it easily covers a 10 by 8 plate to the corners, 
which is larger than that engrave 1 en the mount as its possibility. 
Working as it does with such a large aperture (//G approx) it serves as a 
portrait and erronp Lens, as well as a landscape and copying objective. 
There is no doubt of its proving a most useful lens, J. Traill Taylok. — 
British Journal of Photography. 

Frith's sories of " Life in London Streets " were all taken with 12 x 10 
Portable " OPTIMUS " kns on Cobb's plates. Had an '• Optimus " vapid 
symmetrical been used, the plates would have been over-exposed with full 
aperture.— G. Lindsay Johnson, M.A.,M.B., F.R.C.S., England.— ^ wa^e?o' 
Photoqraplier. » 

PORTRAIT LENS.— The " Optimus " lenses are moderate in price, and 
yield most excellent results. — Amateur PhotograjyJier. 

"OPTIMUS" LENS.— I have taken trains going at 30 miles an hour, 
and think the lenses perfect for rapidity and definition. — E. J. Wall. — 
Amateur Photographer. 

. . . . We may call attention to the extensive optical and metal 
works that Perken, Son, and Rayment have established in Hatton Garden, 
and their photographic cabinet factory in Saffron Hill. At the former we 
were much interested in the glass-grinding departments — one for photo- 
graphic lenses, another for spectacles : a,nd we were surprised to find in 
London such extensive workshops for the metal parts of cameras and optical 
lanterns ; indeed, we thought outside Birmingham we should not find such 
workshops in the United Kingdom. The cabinet works in Saffron Hill also 
interested us much; the arrangement of the machine tools, and distribution 
of power on the several floors, being admirable. — Photographic Kervs. 

We are pleased to find upon trial that the Lens [" Optimus " Rapid 
Rectilinear] sent for review is really an excellent instrument. — Photo- 
graphic Neivs. 

If E. G. E. wants the finest lens in the market he cannot do better than 
get the "OPTIMUS." — Professor De Frere. — Amateur Photographer. 

"OPTIMUS EURYSCOPE."— I am much pleased with the 9 by 7 received 
last week. It covers 12 by 10, and gives splendid definition. For a good, 
useful, all-round lens I consider it perfect. — E. Brightman, Hon. Sec, 
Bristol and West of England A. P. A. 

" OPITMUS EURYSCOPE."— When in your establishment you kindly 
lent me one of your 7 by 5 I like the lens so well, I do not want to part 
with it.— Chapman Jones, F.LC, F.C.S. 

" OPTIMUS EURYSCOPE. "-This lens is of extra large diameter ; tlie 
aperture being //6, and while admitting of the most rapid exposures, gives 
fine marginal definition. We have obtained with it excellent portraits in 
an ordinary sitting room. The lens is a most useful one all-round. — T. C. 
Hepworth.— y/ig Camera, April 1, 1881). 

As I have often said before, I consider these lenses unequalled. — E. J. 
Wall, Amateur Photographer. 

'T have tried the 7x5 'OPTIMUS' Euryscope. It is a very satisfactory 
lens and aoverQ t\iQ whole plate for interiors with //1 6 ; being able to work 
at//6 makes it very handy for portraits."— J, G. P. Verejcer. 



116 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hcatton Garden, LONDON; 



Fitted to BrpidEuryscore I ^,^^4 7^by5 9byJ 10 by 8 12 by 10 15 by 12 lS^byl6 



IRIS DIAPHKAGM 
oed to Rapid Euryb^v,^,. ^ ,^. -.- - - ^ - 

and „ Rectilinear j ^0/- 11/- 13/6 14/- 16/- 18/- 20/- 

Extra. 

'OPTIMUS' 
RAPID PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES, 




Extra Bapid Euryscope, large Diameter (Double). The aperture is 
F/6. The Lenses are of special optical glass, constructed with the nicest preci- 
sion of curvatures, so maintaining good marginal definition, coupled with the 
most Extreme Rapidity. 
To cover 5 by 4 6 by 5 7 by 5 8 by 5 9 by 7 10 by 8 12 by 10 

Equiv. Fjcus 5^ 6i SJ 10 12 14 18 inches. 

63/- 78/- 94 6 110/- 136- 2k 0/- 380/- 




Wide Anerle Euryscope (Double), F/960. Thisajjerture is exceedingly 
open for wide angle work. The definition, howeVer, is in no way sacrificed, 
as the curvatures are perfectly accurate, and the most minute detail in 
architectural and interior subjects is rendered with tbe maximum of crispiiess, 
and a total absence of distortion. 

To cover .5 by 4 7 by 5 by 7 10 by 8 12 by 10 

Equiv. Focus 4 4| 8 10 inches. 

03/- 04/6 i:fl'- 220/- 380/- 

Trade Discount List on Apphcatiox, 



117 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 

IRIS •DIAPHRAGM', I 5by4 7by5 9by7 lObyS 12byl0 15byl2 IS by 16 
Fitted to Rapul Eury.cope V ^^ ^ ^/, ^^h 14/- 16/- 18/- 20/- 
and „ Rectilineal' J 




Portable Symmetrical (Double), F/IC with revolving diaphragms. Specially 
adapted for Arcliitecture, being of short focus and wide angular aperture, 
can be used to advantage when very close to the subject. It is also usefvil 
for landscapes, as well as copying. The smaller sizes give beautiful 
Lantern Slides, the definition being exceptionally crisp. 

To cover f * f V" U H jt plates. 

39/. 52/6 82/6 127/6 142/6 180/- 225/- 




Bapid Rectilinear (Double) F/8.— Second only to the Euryscope for Rapidity 
the'efore well suited for instantaneous effects, outdoor groups and views, as 
well as interiors. Copying and enlarging are also within the capabilitit" of 
the lens; in fact its work may be styled "UNIVERSAL." 

T^ z-^..^- •'5 6 7 H 9 lO 12 li 18 

To Cover T f t 5 T 8 ift T2 le 

Focus 5.> 6f 8f 10 12 14 18 20 25 inches 

33/- 45/- 49/6 64/- 82/6 127/6 14S/6 180/- 225/- 

, We may call attention to the extensive optical and metal 
works that Perken, Son and Rayment have established in Hatton Garden, and 
their photographic • cabinet factory in Saffron Hill. At the former we were much 
interested in the glass-grinding departments — one for photographic lenses, another 
for spectacles ; and we were surprised to find in London such extensive workshops 
for the metal parts of cameras and optical lanterns ; indeed, we thought outside 
Birmingham we should not find such workshops in the United Kingdom. — Photo- 
graphic News. 

We are pleased to find upon trial that the Lens ["Optimus" Rapid Recti* 
tinear] sent for review is really an excellent instrument. — Photographic News. 

Thade Discount List on Application, 



118 
PERKEN, SON, & EAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




Hapld lift ndscape.— Works F/11, and gives brilliant negatives. Particularly 
suited for landscapes also capable of being worked as a Portrait lens. 
To cover... 5 by 4 7 by 5 9 by 7 lOhyS 12 by ]0 plates. 
Focus .. 5.i 12 14 iS inches. 

25/- 36/- 45/- 7d/- 110/- 




Portralt Lens. — Specially constructed as quick acting for short exposures in 

Portraiture. They are second to none, the definition being maintained by 

their perfect optical qualities. 
Diam. 2 inches. 2^ inches. 8] inches. 

Price 90/. 120'- 180/- Larger Sizes to order. 

IB. 2 B. SB. 

'Dear Sirs.— Herewith your 7x5" Optimus ' Lens, which, as per your request, 
I have tried in the production of large heads. Alon^ with it I send two negatives 
taken by it, the head ia one of them measuring Hvo inches, that in the other being 
three inches. In both, the perspective seems right enough, there being no appearance 
of its being strained or violent. 

' With us, it was rather dark and very rainy all day, and I took the negatives 
inside a room, without a diaphragm, exposure 7 sees, and 10 sees, respectively. The 
SHARPNESS of all the planes of tLe head is good, .-xs you will perceive. The 
distance of the sitter from the len.-, v.as 3 ft. GJ ins. for the larger head, and 4 feet 9 in, 
for the smaller head.— Yours truly, J. Traill Taylor.' 

' If E. G. E, wants the FINEST LENS in the market he cannot do better than 
get the " OPTIMUS."— Professor De Ykbx.z:- Amateur Photographer. 

TuADE Dis'jQUNT List on Aitijcation, 



119 
PEIiKEN, SOK, & RAYMENT, 91), Hatt .n Garden, LOXDOK 




"OPTIMUS" ^^S^ CAMERA. lonI^^o'cus. 

Baseboard does not cut o^ the vie^v uiheit using wide angle lenses 
This Instrument possesses every possible advantage, being very Light, very Rigid, 
and very Portable. The focussing screen and body may be brought towards the 
front of Baseboard so ai to prevent obstruction when using lenses of wide angular 
aperture and short focus. It is provided with double-swing arrangement and long- 
focussing (rack) adjustment. When closed the lens may renjain attached to its 
proper p'osition (the front), and project through the TURNTABLE Easeboard. 
Price, including 3 Double Dark Slides— 
4iby3i 5 by 4 6^ by 4| 8^ by (5^ 10 by 8 12 bv 10 15 by 12 
140/- 146/- 165/- 188/- 235/- 28^/- 350/- 




RAYMENTS patent CAMERA. lo'ng75cus. 

" I should strongly recommend Raymknt's Camera. It is LIGHT, COMPACT, 
very RIGID, and extends to about double the usual focus." — A» xteur Photo- 
graplier. 

•''i'he • Rayment' Camera, in particular, clfiims attention. Voth for its BEAUTY 
of WORKMANSHIP and for the EASE and READINESS with which it caI^ 
be put into action." — /"^(^ Ca';/^ra. 

It can be set up almost instantaneonslv, has no loose parts, and includes all 
motions having hinged focussing screen (adjusted by rack and pinion action), double 
swing back, cross fronts reveriring back arrangement so that oblong dark slides give 
either horizontal or vertical pictures without unscrewing the Camera from the tripod. 
Price of Camera, including 3 Double Dark Slides — 
4iby3i I 5by_4 | 6iby4| I Si by f>i | 10 by 8 | 12 by 10 | 15 by 12 



18- ./- 



126/- 



212/- 



258/- 



31^/- 



Tkaul: Discount Lisr on Application. 



m 

PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Oaraen, LONDON'. 




OPTIMUS" CAMERA. 



LONG 
FOCUS 

The Instrument can be set up almost instantaneously, has no loose parts, anfl 
includes all motions, having hinged focussing screen (adjusted by rack and pinion 
action), double swing back, cross fronts reversing back arrangement so that oblong 
dark slides give either horizontal or vertical pictures without unscrewing the Camera 
from the tripod. 

Price of Camera, including 3 Double Dark Slides - 

4i by 3J I 5 by 4 I 6k by 4J I 8i by OJ I 10 by 8 I 12 by 10 I 15 by 12 
130/- I 133/- I 137/- I 175/- | S27/- 1 275/- | 333/- 




"OPTIMUS" STUDIO CAMERA. 

Specially arranged for Studio Use. 

" Invited to say, if in our estimation, the Studio Cameras of Perken, Son, and 
Rayment could be improved in any way whatever, for the purpose for which 
they are intended, we must answer, No!'- Bfitish Journal of Photography. 

This Camera is perfectly rigid, has double length of Bellows to suit small studios 
where large pictures are required, is fitted with Mechanical Adjustment to Focu--, 
and swing back. It is in all respects a perfect Instrument. 

Camera with repeating frame masks, and one single dark slide — 

6J by OJ I 8J by 8J I 10 by 10 I 12 by 12 I 15 by 15 
146/- I 188/- I 226/- | 265/- | 386/ 

' " ~ f _— _— — 

TuADK Discount Lisr o\ Ai'plic-vtion. 



121 
PFJIKEN, SOK, i*t liAYMENT, 99, Hatton C arden, LONDON. 




"OPTIMUS" PORTABLE FOLDING CAMERA. 

Cheap, Strong, Serviceable, and Eflicient. 

Durable ballows, hinged focussing screen with sliding adjustment, readily and 
securely held in exact position by means of a pinion passing through the body 
nearest bottom or baseboard and having milled head screws on either side of the 
instrument to clamp tight. 

Camera and one Double Dark Slide— 

4i by 3J I 5 by 4 I 6J by 4] I SJ by 6J 
21/. I 24/- I 39/6 I 48/- 




PORTABLE 



CAMERA. 



Compact, Rigid, Inexpensive, and of Excellent Finish 



These Instruments have Leather Bellows, and are fitted with hinged Focussing 
Screen, adjusted by Rack and Pinion, Square Reversing Hack, so that horizontal 
or vertical pictures may be taken without removing Camera from Stand. 

Price of Camera, including 3 Double Dark Slides- - 

4i by 3J 1 5 by 4 I G.} by 4J I U by H | 10 by 8 I 12 by 10 I 15 by 12 
85/- I 87/6 1 98/- | iS5/-' | 150/- | 200/- | 260/- 



Extra for Brass Binding Camera, and 3 Double Dark Slides — 
27/6 I 28/- I 80/- 1 32/- 1 33/- | 38/ 1 



48/ 



Trade Discount List on Application. 



122 
PERKEN, gOX, & RAYMENT, 99, Halton Garden, LONDON. 




"OPTIMUS" DETECTIVE CAMERA, 

Price, including three Double Dark Slides. £ s. 

With Optiraus Rapid View Lens "Working F8 510 

Ditto, with " Optimus" Rapid Rectilinear working F8 6 6 

Ditto, with "Optimus" Rapid Buryscope working F6 7 7 O 

•' Extra" Double Dark Slides each 8 6 

The Shutter is arranged tor exposures of any duration not less than -j-i 
f.f a srcond. The Shutter and Camera occupy so little space that six Double 
}')ark-Slides, accommodating twelve Dry Plates, can be carried, in addition to a 
Focussing Screen. A panel slides up at the end of the box, displaying the screen 
for focussing. The exactness in focussing is simple, and the positiofl is maintained 
by a secure clamping arrangement. A similar sliding panel is fitted to the front 
end, whicli completely hides the lens. The exterior is covered with leather, and 
measures 9i by 5J by 7J. (Negatives 4i by 34 or 3i by 3i. 



Carries twelve dry 
plates. 




Plates changed by 
turning a button. 



"OPTIMUS" M-AGAZINE CAMERA. 

NO DARK SLIDES REQUIRED. 

With Papid Rectilinear Lens, working at F8 £6 6 

With Rapid Euryscope working at F(3 7 7 

Twelve dry plates are placed in the upper portion of the grooved travelling 
reservoir. The bases of these plates rest upon the top of the Camera body. '1 he 
grooved reservoir recedes gradually from the Exposure Chamber when the pinion 
IS revolved— allowing one plate at a time to fall to the bottom half of the reservo'r, 
and so place its sensitized surface within the Exposure Chamber oppoMte to the 
Lens, and exactly in true focussing register. The rapidity and simplicity of working 
is unique. The twelve plates may, if desired, be exposed in as many seconds. 
There is no possibility of the plates sticking. The Shutter is suitable and convenient. 

Trade Discount List on Application. 



123 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




"OPTIMUS" 
UBIQUE HAND CAMERA. 

FOR PLATES 4i by 3i 

OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS OF CAMERA, 8 by 4^ by G INCHES. ' 

This instrument has 3 Double D.irk Slides and h self conUlned. The shutter 

ives rapid or slow exposures. With View Finder, Focussing Screen, and 

' Optimus" Rapid View Lens, Complete ... ... ... ... 55/- 

•Opiinui->" Rapid Rectilinear Lens, Complete ... ... ... ... 80/» 




"OPTIMUS" 
MINIMUS HAND CAMERA (patent) 

FOR PLATES 4^ by 8i 
OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS OF CAMERA 8 by 3J by 5 INCHES. 
This Camera has no Dark Slides, carries Twelve Dry Plates. . They place them- 
selves consecutively before the Lens ; each, after exposure, is removed to the back 
of the others by means of the little bag underneath the instrument. The ragister 
indicating the number of plate offered for exposure, renders it impossible for the 
same plate to be twice exposed. It is provided with Focussing Adjustment and 
View Finder, also with a Curtain Shutter which gives slow or rapid exposures. 
Price with "Optimus" Rapid Euryscope ... ... ... £7 7 O 

Trade Discount List on Application. 



124 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




-OPTiMus^' (p^s^^aTe":) camera (^^e^l) 

STRONG, SERVICEABLE AND EFFICIENT. 

It has long extension Taper Bellows, Rising Front, Rack Adjustment, Square 
Reversing Frame, and other modern improvements. 



Price with Three Double Dark Slides — 



4i by 3J 
93/- 



01 by 4J 
114/- 



8i by 6i 
136/- 



"OPTIMUS" 
ECONOMIC PHOTOGRAPHIC SETS, 

The above Camera is supplied with Dark Slide, Rapid Rectilinear Lens 
Instantaneous Shutter and Tripod, complete with waterproof case. 



4J by 3\ 
84/- 



CJ by 4| 
110/- 



8i by 6h 
160/- 



Tradb Discount List on AppLiCATioNi 



125 
PEEKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 90, Hatton Garden, LONBON. 




"OPTIMUS" 
PORTABLE SETS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS. 



. Fitted COMPLETE in Cabinet, with Tripod Stand. 

Suarter Plate Size (4j X 3}) includes every requisite 
alf Plate Size (6^ X 4f ) 



Quarter Plate Size (4J X 3J) as diagram 
Half Plate Size (0 X 4|) 



£ s. d. 
1 16 O 
3 10 O 



2 5 O 
5 



Superior Camera, Rack and Pinion focussing adjustment, 

Quarter Plate (4i X Si) 

,, Half Plate (6i X 4;i) 

Whole Plate (8^ X 6^) 



3 8 

e 15 

9 10 



BRASS BINDING any CAMERA, and 3 Double Dark Slides- 

4iby3i I 5by4 I 6Hy 4| I 8iby6\ llObyS I 12byl0 |15byl3 
27 6 I 28 I 30 I 32 1 33 I 38 1 48 

EXTRA DOUBLE DARK SLIDES for any of our Cameras— 

4i by 3i 1 5 by 4 | Gi by 4J | 81 by 6i | 10 by 8 | 12 by 10 | 15 by 12 
Solid, no hinges — 

EACH i 7/3 1 8/3 I 10/9 | ... | ... | ... | ... 
Solid, with hinged shutters 

EACH I 10/3 I 10/9 I 11/9 I ... I ... I ... I .. 
Hinged opening and Hinged shutter 

EACH I 14/- I 14/6 I 15/. i 21/6 | 25/6 | 31/6 I 47/3 , 
■ "«- ■ ' . " > -^ — ■" — — . irt 

Trade Discount List on Application* 



126 
PITRKEN, son, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




CAMERA CASES, with Shoulder Straps, 

LINED WITH GREEN CLOTH. 
SQUARE— 2' 20/-; ]-, 29/-; V^ 35/-; 1§, 46/- Leather. 

h 15/9; h 20/-; ¥*» 21,6; 'h 28/- Canvas. 
OBLONG— tl»10/6; i, 15/.; i. 20/- Canvas only. 




PORTABLE "UMBRELLA'' RUBY TENT (patent 

NON-ACTINIC. 
Like an umbrella, it folds into a very small space, and can be set up for developing 
)T changing plates as easily as its well-known prototype. Made of two thicknesses of 
material, one ruby, the other orange colour, no light can enter except it be filtered 
through these media. The head and hands are introduced so that the operator, sitting 
in his chair can conveniently watch the progress of his work whilst the tent rests on 
the table. — B'-ginner's Guide to FJiotography. 

Made in two sizes — Dimensions closed. Price 

Inches s. d. 

For changing Plates 24 by 8 26 O 

For Developing „ 28^ by 8 35 

Trade Discount List on Apin.TCATioNi 



127 -■::::--:-:- 

PERK:GN', S0N,^& RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LOltTDOK'. 



WAISTCOAT DETECTIVE CAMERA. 



Tins Instrument is only madk uy thk Patentee, 



C. P. STIRN. 

With Plates for 36 Exposures 

„ 24 „ Larger! 

Size for Lantern Pictures/ 



"OPTIMUS" 
VIEW FINDERS. 



Camera Obscura Model 
11-inch bi-concave 

It :: ;: 



..each 5/- 
.. „ 2/6 
.. „ 6/- 
. „ 8/6 




FOCUSSING GLASSES. 



Per doz.— 
9/9 15/9 18/3 33/9 

With Archimedean Screw. 
60/- per doz. 




COMBINED FOCUSSING GLASS and FINDER. 






Bell Shape, 
5/- each. 



Screw Adjustment 
4/- each. 



Sliding Adjustment 
5/- each. 



Trade Discount List on Application. 



128 
PERKEN SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON 




PATENT 

PERFECTION 
PHOTOMETER. 

CORRECT EXPOSURE A CERTAINTY. 
Each ... 6/9. 




RESERVOIR 



"OPTIMUS" 

MAGNESIUM 

RIBBON LAMP, S/- 

British Journal of Photography, Nov. 7th, 1888 :— " It 
is a neat little thing, not greatly exceeding the dlmen- 
sions of an old-fashioned watch, and projects a powerful 
beam of light. 




HASTINGS' 
FLASH LAMP. 



1/3 



with 
Mouthpiece. 



With #^/^ 

Pneumatic Bal! .-a/t* 



'* A handy Lamp. It is especially adapted for talking instantaneous photographs 
at night. The glass tube is charged with magnesium powder, and the brass trough 
filled with methylated spirit; this being lighted, the pneumatic ball is squeezed, the 
fla<h is given, and the photograph taken." — Amatetir Photograplicr. 




^:^^*fcTC 



MAHOGANY 
RETOUCHING DESKS. 



Whoh-plate 
12 X 10 
IS X 12 



Each has the smaller Carriers. 



16/8 
25.'- 
35/6 



Trade Discount List on Application. 



129 



PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON 

Magnesium Flash Lamp 



FOR PHOTOGRAPHY, 
C 




A Stopper of the Spirit Lamp. 

B Spirit Reservoir. 

C Stopper of the Magnesium Reservoir. 

D Reservoir of Magnesium Powder. 

E Junction of Rubber Tube. 



F Spring Tap for conducting Powder to 

passage. 
G Pneumatic Ball. 

H Stand or Handle for supporting Lamp, 
K Removable Screw Cap to allow 

Cleansing. 



Ii Junction between Pneumatic Ball and Tube. 



MODE OF USING THE LAMP. 

Remove the Stopper A from the Reservoir B, fill the Reservoir B with as much 
spirit as the sponge will absorb, replace the Metallic Gauze as well as the stopper A 
to prevent evaporation. 

Remove Stopper C from Reservoir D, into which pour the Magnesium powder, 
ivhich should be perfectly dry. Replace the stopper C to prevent loss of Powder. 
The Lamp may be held in the hand or stcod on a table or other support. The 
Lamp being now ready, remove the Stopper A and light the Spirit Reservoir, wailing 
until it burns well, press the Pneumatic Ball Gr to assure yourself that the air passes 
freely without extinguishing the flame. Press the Spring Tap F which will allow 
the Powder to enter the Tube above it and close again. Now on squeezing the Ball 
G the air will force the Powder through the flame and give a brilliant flash. By 
pressing the Tap F two or three times, more Powder can be burned, and a more 
intense flash may be obtained. 

To create a continuous light remove the Pneumatic Ball Q from the Rubber 
Tube at L, and blow softly with the mouth, at the Fame time holding open the 
Spring Tap F which will allow the Powder to enter the passage whilst the wind 
you blow into the Tube carries it through the flame. 

The Screw Cap K may be removed to enable the passage to be cleansed, 
which is very necessary to the proper performance ot the little machine. 



PRICE 



(Brass Nickeled) ... 7/6 each. 



Trade Discount List on Application. 



il30 



PERKEN, SON, & EAIMENT, 99, Hatton G a Men, LONDON. 



"OPTIMUS" PLUNGE SHUTTER (PATENT). 



"Mr. J. Traill Taylor exhibited a pneumatic shutter, 
giving exposures of any duration, at will, and avoiding 
all vibration. He stated it was one of the best shutters 
he had seen, and said it was made by Perken, Son, 
and Rayment." — British Journal of Photography. 

This may be styled the most POKTABLE o^ 
shutters. It is made either to lit on the hood, or may 
be adapted to act between the lenses of a doublet. 



To fit i or J plate Optimus Lens 




30/) Complete 
with 



30/ 



Pneumatic 



48/ j Release. 



OPTIMUS" BETWEEN LENS SHUTTERS. 



Is arranged to fit the lens mount like a saddle. Exposure 
is effected by a plunger working between the two combinations 
of a double lens, or in front of them if preferred. Both 
pneumatic and hand releases are provided. Exposures 
varying from J- of a second to prolonged may be attained. 
The workin? parts are strong, and derangement impossible 
with a reasonably careful operator. Weight and bulk are 
reduced to a minimum. 

Prices same as above. 




PHANTOM SHUTTER, with Hand Release. 

For Diameter of Front Lens. 



ich. 


13/- 


11 

14/6 


2 

15/9 


lG/9 


24 
18/3 


19/6 


3 

20/9 


21/9 


3.J 
23,3 


IF 


FITTED ' 


WITH 


PNEUMATIC 


RELEASE, 




20/9 


22/. 


2 
23,3 


2i 

24/6 


2i 

25/9 


2J 

27/- 


3 
28 8 


3i 

29/'6 


3i 

80/9 



Trade Discount List on Application. 



131 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




TRIPOD 



STUDIO. 




"OPTIMUS" STANDS for CAMERAS. 



Telescopic, with sliding kg adjustment, rigid 

Folding Ash, with Bayonet joint, "E.P.," 
\ery rigid 

Telescopic Ash, with sliding leg adjustment, 
" Maudsley '' pattern ... 

Telescope Ash, 3-fold, as sketch ... 

'OPTIMUS' Stand, very rigid and much 
recommended for large sizes 

* 4- FOLD, Very Portable 

Pine Studio Stands with clamp 

Mahogany 



* Socially Portable. Strongly recommended where Small Bulk is important. 



8 6 


h 
s. 
9 


d. 
6 


i 
s. d. 
10 


9 9 


10 


9 


12 6 


18 6 


19 


9 


20 9 




23 





24 




15 





16 




20 





25 


14 6 


30 





RACK 

45 O 



16 9 



20 3 



24 


9 


29 





22 





35 





43 


9 


78 


9 



Trade Discount List on Application. 



132 
PERKEN, SON, & IlAYMEKd^-99, Hatton Garden LONDON, 




*'OPTIMUS" 
MICRO-PHOTOGRAPHIO APPARATUS. 

Camera, with Dark Slide, Microscope, 2-inch Objective, Lamp, £ s d 

Condenser, &c 9 10 

Superior Camera and Microscope, with Rack and Pinion Adjustment 

Fitted for Focussing as well as for Adjusting the Stage li 




HEAD RESTS. 



Amateur, to fit 

on Chair ... 7,6 



STUDIO 
15/- 28/. 42/. 




"OPTIMUS' 



Tradk Discount Xist on Application. 



133 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton' Garden, LONDON 



OPTIMUS INFALLIBLE DEVELOPER. 



THE Components of this Developer are perfectly pure, and the 
exact quantities necessary are employed, so ensuring the best 
possible negatives, whether Landscapes or Portraits, be the 
Exposures Instantaneous or Prolonged. 

TO PREPARE THE DEVELOPER. 

Place the contents of the three packets into a quart bottle and fill 
up with 40 ozs. pure (if possible distilled) water. When all is completely 
dissolved it is ready for use. 

TO ECONOMISE THE DEVELOPER. 

After developing, pour the used Developer into a second bottJg,fcr 
it can be advantageously employed in developing other plates. 

To obtain the best possible results we recommend the following 
instructions to the careful attention of the operator : 

For Plates— 

Over Exposed. use Old Developer only. 

Instantaneously Exposed ,, New Developer ,, 

Under Exposed ,, half old & half new. 

Place the plate in the developing dish or tray and pour over it 
sufficient Developer to cover the upper surface thoroughly. 

When the detail does not appear as quickly as expected add new 
Developer, or use new only, as may be found necessary. 

IN PACKETS SUFFICIENT FOR 100 ^PLATES. 
PRICE Is. 6d. 



Trade Discount List on Application. 



134 



PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hattoni Garden, LONDON. 

DAYLIGHT DEVeToPINgIiSII 



PATENT. 




PERKEN, SON & RAYWIENT/L-Jtr LONDON. 

WE would draw the attention of those who find the 
atmosphere and darkness of the dark room objec- 
tionable, to this apparatus which we have just 
completed, and which greatly reduces the time necessary 
for the operator to be imprisoned in the black hole— in 
fact, if a changing box or bag be used, the dark room, 
is unnecessary. 

It consists of a dish with non-actinic glass top and bottom, supported 
on a convenient stand, and having an AUTOMATIC ROCKING 
ARRANGEMENT, which keeps the dish oscillating during development 

At the sides of the dish external funnels communicate with the 
interior, and are so arranged that white light cannot reach the plate. 
Through these funnels solutions are conveyed to the plate within, which 
may be strengthened or weakened at will, or run off by means of a waste 
pipe, and the plate flooded with water. 

The fixing, which does not require the continued presence of the 
operator, may be accomplished in the changing bag or dark room. 



Price for 



21/. 
27/6 



Trade Discount List on Appijcation. 



135 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 



^'OPTIMUS" LAMPS FOR DARK ROOM. 



The Lantern shown in the diagram is fitted with 
a gas jet adjustable from the outside : the light 
can thereby be readily lessened or increased at 
will. In front is a sheet of ruby or orange glass, 
easily removed, behind which is a double thick- 
ness of canary fabric set in a metal frame ; it is, 
therefore, safe when developing the most sensitive 
J^SaOf plates. As development progresses, one of the 
' non-acting media can be moved, and the negative 

examined by the protection the second medium 
continues to give, enabling the amount of detail 
to be judged with ceitainry. In this lamp thejoints 
are all perfectly light-tight, being made with a double turn over of tin; the upper 
parts are also held together with rivets. Ventilation is well considered, as a shaft 
at the back of the lamp, open at bottom and top, encourages a free circulation of air. 
Without doubt this lamp has no equal for the purpose for which it is intended. — 
British Journal of Photography. 




Fitted either with Cas or Argand Burner for Paraffin Oil. 



Square or Bound 



each 13s. 




The form of Lantern shown in the accompanying 
diagram presents a great many advantages. It pos- 
sesses a powerful Lamp so arranged that the oil 
receptacle is isolated from the flame and cannot get 
heated. Plenty of air circulates. In front is a sheet 
of ruby glass (removable), behind which is a sheet 
oi deep orange •; it is therefore safe when developing 
the most sensitive of Plates. As development pro- 
gresses the ruby glass can be raised and the Negative 
examined by the orange glass only, enabling the 
amount of detail to be readily judged, per doz. 88/- 



FOLDING LAMP. — An inexpensive form of Lamp having two sides of metal, 
and the third of red glass. The metal sides are hinged together, so that they fold 
up for travelling, with the ruby glass protected from fracture by lying between them. 
Top and bottom triangular pieces — one forming a candle-holder and the other a 
chimney — complete this clever little arrangement ... ... per doz. 80/- 



REDDINGS' PATENT PORTABLE LAMP— 

Small, 40/- : Medium, 64/- ; and Large, 72/-per doz. 



CANDLES for above 



Small, 28/- ; Large ditto, 42/- gross. 



Trade Discount List on Application, 



136 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




(( 



OPTIMUS" REVOLVING PRINT-WASHER. 



Water is injected from a perforated lube which crosses the tank at the bottom. The 
force of water creates a revolving current which carries the prints over and over in 
its course. The bottom is slightly V shaped and ci nlains an outlet for waste. 

Prices, including Grooved Metal Rack, which fits into the tank .^nd accommo- 
dates negatives which can be also washed. Making the machine efficient for both 
NEGATIVES and PRINTS. 



For Negatives and Smaller 



16/-; 



SI/- 



)/• 




"CPTIMUS" ROCKING PRINT-WASHER. 

Water running (rom a tap revolves the wheel which is connected with the cradle 
causing it to rock up and down at each revolution. A syphon is fitted to drain the 
tank. One hour's washing is ample. 



inches 9^7 cradle 
16X13 .. 



18/6 
39/6 



11^9 cradle 28/- | 13 x 11 cradle 32/- 
20X16 „ 50/- 




NEGATIVE WASHER 

AND DRAINING RACK, COMBINED, 
For Quarter, Five by Four, Half, and Whole Plate Negatives, 7/0. 

' 11 I I I I I I r «i II I 

Trade Discount List on Application j 



137 



PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 90, Hatton Garden, LONDON 




"OPTIMUS" 

BURNISHERS FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC 
PRINTS 

The Burnishing Bar isspecially hardened. The Frame is of superior and convenient 
construction. It is^ Nickel-plated, and of beautiful finish. Each instrument is 
mounted on a table with legs. 

Plate i h ] '^ \u H (larger 

Price 20;- 30/- 30/- 45/- 00/- 90/- to order.) 




OPTIMUS" CAMEO PRESSES. 



Carte de Visite (3 shapes) 

Cabinet (3 shapes each for Cabinet and Carte de Vi.iite) ... 



10/. 
22A 



Thade Discount List on ApplicatioNi 



138 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC SUNDRIES. 
Vulcanite Trays. 

3by3j 42by3| 5jby4l 7by5i 8by6 9by7 lUbyOibyl ISjbyllibylJ 
Price per doz. 

5/3 5/9 6/9 8/9 15/- 19/- 27/- 46/- 

Porcelain Trays. 

5by4 6by5 7by5 8by6 9by7 lObyS llby9 r2bylO ISbyll libyU 
Price per doz. 

7/3 8/6 9/3 10/6 12/6 15/- 20/- 25/- 35/- 42/- 

Papier Mache. 

4|by3 7 by 5 8i by GJ 10} by SJ 12i by lOj 15j by 12^ 
Price per doz. 6/9 11/- 14/- 21/- 28/6 45/- 

Folding Plate Racks. 

For draining plates after washing: (to hold 12) ^ 

10/3 13/6 ISA 

( ., 24) 
14/. 18/. 24/. 

Graduated Glass Measures. 

Idr. 2dr, loz. 2oz. 4oz 6oz. 8oz. lOoz, 16oz. 20oz. 82oz. 40o2 
Pfr doz. 6/- 7/8 6/9 8/- 10/3 12/9 14/3 15/9 22/3 27/- 40/6 45/. 

Glass Funnels, Ribbed or Plain. 

J>iam ofTop Ins. U 2 2 8 4 4^ 5 5J 6 7 8 
Price per doz. 3/- 3/3 3/8 4/0 4/3 5/- 7/- 9/- 12/- 16/- 21/- 

Cutting Shapes. 

CD.V. 4 by 3 Cabinet. CJ by 4} 8i by Ci 10 by 8 12 by 10 
Price per doz. 5/6 6/- 9/6 10/6 22- 30/- 48/- 

Trade Discount List o\ Application. 



139 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON 

PHOTOGRAPHIC SUNDRIES. 



Printing Fra:nes Oak. 

Superior finish, round corners, brass springs, per doz. 

4J by 3i 5 by 4 6i by 4J Sj by 6J 10 by 8 12 by 10 
4/9 6/2 8/9 12/6 18/- 27/- 

Mahogany, superior, per doz. 

9/- 15/. 21/. 32/. 50/. 66/. 



Light-tight Plate Boxes. 



Mahogany, for 12 plates, per doz. 
30/- 43/. 
M 24 „ 

60/. 72/. 


54/0 


68/. 


78/- 


84/. 


80/'. 


102/6 


144/. 


180/. 



Negative Boxes. 



White Wood (to hold 12), per 


doz. 










10/6 


12/. 


18/- 


22/6 


37/8 


46/. 


„ 24), 


,, 










12/9 


13/6 


22/6 


28/. 


40/- 


67A 


„ .. 50), 


,, 










16/6 


21/- 


28/6 


39/. 


57/. 


66/- 



i Vignette Glasses. 

6/6 12/6 18A 26/6 30/- 48/. 

Carriers or Inner Frames. 

For Double Dark Slides, to carry smaller plates, per do*. 

15/9 18/- 21/. 27/- 86A 48/ 

Trade Discount List on Application. 



140 
PEEKEN^, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




''OPTIMUS" 
ENLARGING 
APPARATUS. 

This Apparatus comprises su- 
perior Maiiogany Body Lantern 
and long Bellows Camera adjus- 
ted by Patent Quick Action 
Rack and Pinion. The Lantern 
is fitted with powerful Refulgent 
Lamp, with 3 wicks, giving 
brilliantillumination. Compound 
Condensers. 




Condenser. 


S-inch no front lens ... 100/- 


6 „ with , 


... 127/- 


G „ no , 


, ... 333/- 


6 „ with , 


... 151/- 


7 „ no , 


... 155/- 


7 „ with , 


, ... 173/6 


8 ,, with , 


, ... 256/- 


9 „ with , 


, ... 290/- 


10 ,, with , 


, ... 360/. 


12 „ with , 


, ... 580/- 


If with Russian Iron instead of 


Mahogany Body. 


Sinch no lens ... 75/- 


5 „ and „ ... 102/6 


6 „ no „ ... 87/6 


6 „ and „ ... 115/3 


7 „ no „ ... 110/- 


7 „ and „ ... 137/9 


8 „ no 160/- 


9 210/- 


10 „ „ „ ... 285/- 


12 .. „ „ 


.. 450/ 



Adapted for use with Lime-light 
or Oil Lamp. 

When large sized Condensers are employed, it will be found advantageous to use 
the Oxy-hydrogen or Oxy-calcium Lime Light Burners; but good results are obtained 
with the Refulgent Mineral Oil Lamps supplied with the apparatus. 

'OPTIMUS' 

COMPOUND CONDENSERS (n..„.t.d) FOR ENLARGEMENTS. 

445 C) 7 S 9 10 12 

8/6 16/6 24/ 39/- 50/9 69/6 93/6 132/- 222/- 



Inches Diameter 



Tkade DiseouxT List o\ AitlicatioNi 



lil 

PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




'OPTIMUS' 
TRIPLE OXY-HYDROGEN LANTERN 

The Top of the Lantern may be used separately with Oil Lamp. 

Seasoned Mahogany Body, 6 Panelled Doors with Sight Holes, 
Moulded foot, picked out with black, Highly Fir.ished Brass 
Stages and Sliding Tubes, Compound Condensers 4 inches 
diameter. Three-draw Telescopic Front 'lubes, and SIX 
Photographic Front Lenses of 6-in, and 4-in. focus ... 22 18 O 

Three Safety Gas Jets ... ... ... ,., ... ... 1 13 O 

'OPTlxMUS' Triple Dissolving Tap (Patent) 1 13 O 



£26 4 O 



The Draw Tub;> are specially rigid, so maintaining the Optical Axis accurately 
and ensuring the Front Lens, Condenser, and Slide occupying Parallel Planes. 
Curtain Slide, extra 7/-; Double pinion, extra 3/-; Flashers, extra 3/6 each. 
Lantern Photographs, Plain, 12/-; Coloured, 18/6 per doz. 



Tkade Discount List on Application, 



142 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




'OPTIMUS' 
OXY-HYDROGEN TRIPLE LANTERN. 

The Top Lantern may be used separately with Oil Lamp • 

Seasoned Mahocany body, 6 Panelled Doors with Sight holes. 
Mo'jlded foot, picked out with black, Finished Brass Stages 
and Sliding Tubes. Achromatic Photographic Combination 
Front Lenses, large diameter I'ack Lens, Compound 
Condensers of 4 inches diameter ... 

3 Safety Gas Jets 

•OPTIMUS' Triple Dissolvin? Tap (Patent) 

Complete 

The Draw Tubes are male tpocially rigid, so rnalntainlng the optical axi| 
accurately and ensuring the front lens, condenser and slide occupying parallel planes. 

Curtain Slide, extra 7/-; Double pinion, extra 3/-; Flashers, extra 3/6 each. 
Lantern Photographs, Plain, 12'-; Coloured, 18/6 per doz. 

Trade Discount List on Application. 



14 10 
1 13 
1 13 


O 
O 

o 


£17 16 


o 



PERKEN,:SON, & RAYMENT, 9D, Hatfcon Garden, ^LONDON. 




OPTIMUS' Bl-UNIAL Oxy-Hydrogen lantern. 



Seasoned Mahogany Body, 4 Panelled Doors with Sight Hole^, Moulded 
Foot, picked out with lilack, Compound Bi-convex Condenser^ ot" 
4 inches diameter. Highly Finished Brass Stages, and with Brasi 
3-draw Telescopic Front Tubes, and FOUR Photographic I'ront 
Lenses of 6 inches, 4 inches focus £14 14s. 



2 Safety Jets 

6 Way Dissolving Tap 



£1 2s. 

]73. 



£16 18s. 



The Draw Tubes are specially rigid, so maintaining the Optical Axis accurately, 
and ensuring the Front Lens, Condenser, and Slide occupying Parallel Planes, 



Curtain Slide, extra 7/-; Double pinion, extra 3/-; Flashers, extra 3/6 each. 
Lantern Photographs, Plain, 12'-; Coloured, 18/6 per doz. 

Trade Discount List on Application. 



144 



PERKEN, SOK-, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




'OPTIMUS' BI-UNIAL LANTERN 

Fop Oxy-Hydrogen Lime Light. 
The Top Lantern may be used with Oil Lamp. 



Seasoned Mahogany Body, 4 Panelled Doors with Sight Holes, 
moulded foot picked out with black, Japanned stages and 
tubes, Achromatic Photographic Front Lenses, compound con- 
densers of 4 inches diameter ... ... ... £5 12 O 

Ditto ditto with highly finished BRASS stages and sliding tubes... 8 8 



The Draw Tube? are specially rigid, so maintaining the Optical Axis accurately 
and ensuring the Front Lens, Condenser, and Slide occupying Parallel Planes. 



Curtain Slide, extra 7/ ; Double pinion, txtra 3/-; Flashers, extra 3/6 each. 
Lantern Photographo Plain, 12'-; Coloured, 18/6 per dor. 

TiiADE Discount List on Application. 



145 
PERKEN, SOX, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 



^.,. .J \ 



^:..'"— 




*OPTIMUS' SIDE-BY-SIDE OR BI-UNIAL 
MAGIC LANTERN. 

May be used as a pair with Oil or Lime light. 



The above Diagram represents a full-sized combined Lantern. It is made of 
japanned metal. It may be worked one above the other, as the dotted lines show, 
or side by side as the positive diagram shows : or again, the two Ins'ruments may be 
separated and worked in two distmct places, as each Lantern is complete in itielf. 
A further advantage is possessed by these Lanterns, for the body whiclj is constructed 
to accommodate limelight will also readily accommodate oil lamps, the groove into 
which the trays are inserted being made to the same guage as ouj Lamps. 

Without Lamps or Jets £4 11 O 

Gas Jets each... 11 O 

3-Wick Lamps, each , 12 O 

Achromatic Photographic Combination Front Lense* (with large diameter Back 
Lens). Compound Condensers of 4 inches diameter. 

Curtain Slide, extra 7/-; Double pinion, extra 3/-; flashers, extra y/6 each. 



Lantern Photographs, 



Plain, 12' 



Coloured, 1 8/6 l^er dor. 



Tkade J)iscount List on Application. 



146 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON 




'OPTIMUS' MAGIC LANTERN. 

Japanned Metal Body 30/- 

Adapted/or use with Limelight. For Dissolving 2 Lanterns are necessary. 




40/. 
65/- 



STUDENT'S MAGIC LANTERN. 

Students Lantern Japanned Metal Body (to take demonstrating tank) 

with finished Brass Sliding Tubes 

Do. _ Russian Iron Body, with finished brass front stage 

plate and sliding tube .. .. 

Adapted for ute uit/i Litnelight. For Dissolving, 2 Lanterns are necessary. 

Each Magic Lantern is efficient for exhibitions. 'J'he Lens gives crisp definition, 
being a superior Achromatic Photographic Combination (large diameter back lens), 
with rack and pinion. It is fitted to a telescopic lengthening tube, so gaining increased 
focal accommodation. The Condenser is composed of two plano-convex Tenses of 4 
inches diameter The refulgent lamp has 8 wicks, or 4 wicks 2s. extra, yielding a 
brilliantly illuminated picture.— Each is complete in box. 



Trade Discount List on Application. 



147 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 9D, Hatton aarden, LONDON 




RUSSIAN IRON MAGIC LANTERN. 

Highly Finished Brass Sliding Tubes 45s. 

Adapted for use 7viik Limelight. For Dissolving, 2 Lanterns are necessary. 

Each Magic Lantern is efficient for exhibitions. The Lens gives crisp definition, 
being a superior Achromatic Photographic Combination (large diameter back lens), 
with rack and pinion. It is fitted to a telescopic lengthening tube, so gaining increased 
focal accommodation. The Condenser is composed of two plano-convex lenses of 4 
inches diameter. The refulgent lamp has 3 wicks, or 4 wicks 2s. extra, yielding a 
brilliantly illuminated picture.— Each is complete in box. 




''OPTIMUS" MAGIC LANTERNS. 

Perforated Kussian Iron Body, Brass Sliding Tubes ... 50s. 

Adapted for use with Livtelight. For Dissolving 2 Lanterns are necessary. 

Each Magic Lantern is efficient for exhibitions. The Lens gives crisp definition, 
being a superior Achromatic Photographic Combination (large diameter back lens), 
with rack and pinion. It is fitted to a telescopic lengthening tube, so gaining 
increased focal accommodation. The Condenser is composed of two plano-convex 
lenses of 4 inches diameter. The relulgent lamp has 3 wicks, or 4 wicks 2s. extra, 
yielding a brilliantly illuminated picture.— Each is complete in box. 

Trade Discount List ox Application. 



1-J8 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatfcon Garden, LONDON. 




''OPTIMUS" MAHOGANY MAGIC LANTERN. 

Mahogany outside Body, Japanned Metal Stages and Sliding Tubes ... 42s. 




■ OPTIMUS" 
SUPERIOR MAHOGANY MAGIC LANTERN. 

Seasoned Mahogany Body, 2 Panelled Doors, Highly Finished Brass 

Stages and Sliding Tubes 82s. 

Adapted for use with Limelight. For Dissolving, 2 Lanterns are necessary. 
Each Magic Lantern is efficient for exhibitions. The Lens gives crisp definition, 
being a superior Achromatic Photographic Combination (large diameter back lens), 
with rack and pinion. It is fitted to a telescopic lengthening tube, so gaining increased 
focal accommodation. The Condenser is composed of two piano convex lenses of 4 
Inches diameter. The refulgent lamp has 3 wicks, or 4 wicks 2s. extra, yielding a 
brilliantly illuminated picture. — Each is complete in box. 

Trade Discount List ox Application. 



149 
PEEKEN, SON, & RAYMEXT, 99, Hattoii Garden, LONDON. 




'OPTIMUS' 
PAIRS OF LANTERNS FOR DISSOLVING. 



For Dissolving Views, two Lanterns are required, and are arranged in one portable 
box; either of the before mentioned styles of Lanterns may be selected. The extra 
cost above that of the two lanterns being 8/9, the price of the fan dissolver ; if used 
for oxy-hydrogen light two gas jets are needed. 



Japanned Metal Body 

,, ,, Student's Form 

Mahogany Body, Lined with Metal 

Russian Iron Body 

,, ,, Perforated 

,, ,, Student ■ 

Seasoned Mahogany Body, 2 Panelled Doors, all Brass Fittings 



30/- each. 

40/. 

42/- 

45/- 

50/- 

55/- 

83/- 



Each Magic Lantern is efficient for exhibitions. The Lens gives crisp definition, 
being a superior Achromatic Photographic Combination (large diameter back lens), 
with rack and pinion. It is fitted to a telescopic lengthening tube, so gaining 
increased focal accommodation. The Condenser is composed of two plano-convex 
lenses 4 inches diameter. The refulgent lamp has 3 wicks (or 4 wicks, 2s. extra), 
yielding a brilliantly illuminated picture.— Each is complete in box. 



Safety Blow through Gas Jets 
Chamber (mixed) ,, ,, 

Lantern Photographs, Plain, 12/- ; 



Coloured, 18/6 per doz. 



11/- each. 
16 6 „ 



Trade Discount List ox Application, 



150 

PERKEJ^, SON,'-& RAYMENT, 9*1, Hatton Garden, LOlS'DOK. 




*OPTIMUS' MAGIC LANTERNS for YOUTHS. 

To burn ParafTin or Mineral Oil. 

The body of these lanterns is so constructed that the oil reservoir is not like'y to 
become heated, since it falls through the bottom of the illuminated chamber anJ is 
in outside air. 

Small Magic Lanterns, with condensers, front lens (adjustable), 
black japanned body, chimney, lamp and reflector — 



3. 1 ... diam. 


front lens 


U . 


.. condenser 


n ■ 


.. 2,6 each 


2 ... 


n 


u 


»» 


n . 


.. 310 „ 


3 ... 


» 


IVV 


1) 


2tV . 


.. 6/6 „ 


4 ... 


» 


H 


•• » 


n 


•• 9/- » 


5 ... 


» 


H 


.. J, 


3 . 


.. 11/- „ 


6 (in box) 


it 


H- 


• • »» 


Sh . 


.. 20;. „ 




Boxes of 12 Slides forLantem, each Slide containing several figures 
arranged as Tales if desired. 

No. 1 Paper edge 8'- each. 

3/8 



8 Wood edge 
6 !! 



Note.— We mamtain the sizes, both of Lanterns and Slides, as of old : many 
makers call our No. 2 No. 3, and so on. 



6/8 
9/4 
12/- 
16/- 
18/8 



Trade Discount List on Application. 



151 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 

RACKWORK & MECHANICAL SLIDES, 

For Lanterns with 4 inch Compound Condensers only. 




CHROMATROPES, 3 inch diameter, best quality (various designs) 
CHROMATROPES. 3 inch diameter, with Photographic Portraits, 

Mottoes, Views, &c. in centre 

CHROMATROPE CARRIER FRAME, with C Pairs of Painted 

Discs in rack box 

RACKWORK SOLDIERS' HEADS, changing to Donkeys' Heads 

SNOWSTORM EFFECT 

CURTAIN to roll up, showing Painted Curtain or Drop Scene 
DANCING SKELETON SLIDE, with lever motion taking od 

Head 

LIGHTNING EFFECT 

RAINBOW EFFECT 

LEVER MOON-RISING EFFECT 

MAN SWALLOWING RATS, rack mills, &c 

RACK WORK, best painted wave slides 



d. 

each. 



10 



21 





8 


6 


7 





10 





5 





1 


9 


1 


9 


4 


6 


10 





15 






Trade Discount List on Application. 



152 
PFRKF?n\ RON, & BAYMENT, 90, Hatlcn Garden, LONDON. 



i::^A 




27 
4 



4 O 



SLIDING CARRIER BLOCK. 

For two pictures, per doz. 

SETS OF EFFECT SLIDES for dissolving views from... per set 

Sets of all the most popular Nursery lales, in great variety best 

painted ... ... ... ... ... per slide... 

Second quality ... ... ... ... ... pei slide... 

LONQ PANORAMA SLIDES from.. .each... 

Motto Slides ... ... ... .. ... ,, ,, ... 

SETS OF 10 SLIDES, best rack Astronomy, 2^-inch circles, m 
mahogany box 

Ditto ditto in 3-inch ,, ,, 

PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEWS taken in all countries per dozen 

Colored ditto ... ... ... ... ... from per dozen 

SQUARE WOOD BLOCKS, per gross 
Soft limes, per tin of one dozen ... 
Hard limes 

Front lenses for lantern, rack motion, double achromatic photo- 
graphic combination... 
Ditto ditto long focus 



GAS JETS. 

Blow Through .. 

Chamber 

Interchangeable 

GAS BAGS, GAS CYLINDER3, 

At lowest market prices. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE 

PATENT FANTOCCINI ANIMATED TRANS- 
PARENT FIGURES 

Which without doubt give a most life-like effect when projected on the screen. 
MAGIC LANTERN SLID US IN GREAT VARIETY. 



2 


8 


2 


8 


8 





100 





110 





12 





18 


6 


42 





1 





1 


6 


15 





86 





46 





11 


O 


16 


6 


18 


6 



Trade Dlscouxt List on Api'uc.vtion. 



153 
PERKEN, SOX, & KAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




COMIC SLIPPING SLIDES. 

600 Different Subjects ... ... ... per doz. 12/- 

These are well painted, giving brilliancy and transparency of colour. 




COMIC LEVER SLIDES. 

300 Different Subjects ... ... ... per doz. 37/6 

These mechanical slides are suited for Lanterns with 4-inch condensers. 




SLIDING^ GABBIER BLOCK, for two pictures, per doz. 



27/- 



Tkade Discount List on Application, 



154 



PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




MICROSCOPE FOR LANTERN. 

II ;|| I f Having brass body with high and low powers, suif- 
J \i\\\\ able for optical lantern possessinf^ 4in. compound 



condensers 



18/6 




'^ MICROSCOPE FOR LANTERN. 



(SUPERIOR.) 



If with rack motion and revolving 
stage 84A 




OPTIMUS" APHENGESOOPE, 



An Instrument for exhibiting opaque objects, 
cartes-de-visite, etc. ; suitable for 
optical lantern with 4in. compound con- 
densers 18/. 

Superior Aphengescope, arranged for pairs of 
lanterns with achromatic front lenses and 
rack adjustments 30/' 



"OPTIMUS" POLARISCOPE 

With analyser in case 133' 



OPTIMUS 

KALEIDOSGOPF. 

In case with lock and 
key 40/- 




Trade Discount List on Application. 



155 
PERKEN, son, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDO?' 




*'0PriMU3" REFULGENT LAMPS. 

Stout Russian Iron. Burning Mineral Oil. 

This lamp has been universally pronounced the safest yet the most brilliant lamp 
used with the Projecting Magic Lantern. A flame-sight-hole at the back enables 
the manipulator to adjust the wicks with the nicest accuracy whilst working. 

Two wicks (wicks 2 inches wide) 12/6 

Three wicks 13/6 

Four wicks . 15 6 




^^OPTIMUS" LAMP WICK TRIMMER (Piatent). 



For \\ inch wicks 
For 2 inch wicks , 



2/6 
4/9 



This little contrivance saves much Ironljle. With one cut it cleans off the 
charred portion of wick, and leaves a perfectly even ridge of coiton to hold tf>e 
flame, which, in consequence, burns with a clearness and freedom _ from smoke 
that is very desirable. It is particularly recommended for photographic developing 
lamps, and for lamps used with the optical lantern. — British Journal of Fhoto^raJ>hy. 




ANIMALCUL/t OR CHEMICAL TANK. 

These being made of Glass and Indiarubber, are not affected by chemicf.ls 3/6 



Discounts on ArPLiCATioN. 



m 

1>ERKEN, SON. c^- RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDO: 
MAGIO LANTERN GAS JETS FOR LIMELIGHT. 

J 




Beht 



t qualityblow-through gas jet, with cog-wheel arrangement for turning, 
also raising and lowering the lime ; platina nipple c 



each 11/. 




Best mixed chamber gas jet, with cog-wheel arrangement for turning, also 

raising and lowering the lime ; platina nipple each 16/6 




New interchangeable jet or both gases under pressure, mixed or .for blow- 
through form, by simply removing and using the burner as required ; 
both have platina nipples each 18/9 



Trade Discount List on Application. 



157 



PERKEK, SON, & RAYMENT, 90, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 





BRAZED 

IRON 

RETORT, 

10/- 



GAS BAGS-Stout Twiil. 




jGAS CYLINDER 

I With Regulator and Pros- 
sure Gauge attached. 



. SIZES. Capacity 
HI. In. In. cubic ft. Pile 




82, 
87/0 
89/C 
42/. 
45/. 
40/0 
48/6 
51/. 
53/. 
65/. 



Tkade Discount List ox Application. 



158 
PFRKEN, SON, i^- RAYMEJ^T, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDOK 



PATENT SAFETY POROUS 
ETHER SATURATOR, 

FOR TRODUCING THE 

ETHO-OXYGEN LIME LIGHT, 
FOR OPTICAL LANTERNS. 



This Apparatus is the most peifect means for p; educing the Eiho- 
Oxygcn Liiiie Light, and gives the most powerful illumination known for Optical 
Lanterns. In its use there is no heat, no bubbling, and no obstruction to the free 
passage of the Oxygen. It can be disturbed or upset without affecting the light or 
spilling any Ether into the tubing. After one adjustment of the light, it will 
automatically regulate the supply of Ether vapour to correspond to any variation 
thesupply of Oxygen. This IS a V" — ^--^- ■■ -•- 



by no other Apparatus. 



very important advantage possessed 



ILLUSTRATION. 




a To Ether side of Jet. i To Oxygen side 



T Piece— to Bag. 



It consists of two brass tube^ or bodies, screwed into a bent brass connecting tube, 
lying side by side on an ebonised wooden stand, which is filled with a handle for 
carrying about. The brass tubes or bodies can easily be removed by unscrewing the 
set screws wliich fasten them to the board. Each tube is fated at one end with screw- 
down cap, having a no;i!zle in its centre for the purpose of attaching elastic tubing, 
and both are fitted with a roll of flannel or coarse cloth, having a spiral wire in the 
centre to keep them open. Each nozzle has a small screw cap to prevent escape of 
Ether when not in use. 

PRICE 86,- 



TuADB Discount List on ArPLicAiioN. 



150 



PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 




TRANSPARENT SCREENS. Best Union Cloth. 

Feet square 6 7 10 12 14 16 20 

27/- 28/- 30/- 36/- 45/- 60/- 75/- 126,'- 




OPTIMUS^' (LECTURER'S) PORTABLE 
READING LAMP. 



Price of Lamp, with Signal, Bell, and Match Box complete 



8/- each 



Trade Piscou*nt List on Application. 



160 



PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON". 



SETS OF LANTERN 



Price Uncoloured 
„ Coloured 

Number of Slides comprised in each 

A 

A Day in London .. ... set of 

A Day's Holiday at Windsor 

A Photographer's Perplexities ... 

A Precious Couple on the road to 
Gretna Green ... 

A Trap to Catch a Sunbeam 

A Trip to Brighton 

A true Story of the old Coaching 
Days ... 

A Visit to the British Museum ... 

A Walk in the " Zoo " _ ... 

A Year within the Arctic Circle... 

Abbeys and Castles of England .. 

Adventures of Briggs with a Bull 

Adventures of Brown, Smith, 
Jones and Robinson .. 

i'Esop's Fablej 

Afghan War... 

Aladdin, or the Wonderful Lamp 

Algiers 

Alice in Wonderland 

,, ,, Songs 

America, North, and Niagara ... 

American Franklin Search Expe- 
dition 

Androcles and the Lion 

Animal Sagacity 

Animals at the Zoological Gardens 

An Old Story ^ ... 

Art Collections, South Kensing- 
ton Museum 

Astronomy > 

Astronomical Instruments • ) 

B 

Baby's Sugar Bag 

Barber and his Clever Dog 
Baron Munchausen 



Barred Window 

Bashful Man 

Beautiful Snow 

Belgium 

Berlin 

Bible Manners and Custom 

teliinderbore . 

Book of M.nrlyrs 

jjookworm... 



Set is 

60 
30 
12 

12 
15 
40 

10 
50 

48 
50 
50 

4 

4 
50 
86 
107 
20 
42 

7 
59 

20 

6 

24 

215 

20 

59 
800 



Children'sMessiah, Service of Song 

Chimes, The 

China and the Chinese 

ChrLstmas Set 

Christie's Old Organ ... 24 

Cinderella 

Cleopatra's Needle 

Clever Nejphew 

Cock Robin 

Come Home, Father 

Price of dboveLantern Photographs: Plain 12/-, Coloured 18 j6 per 



12s. per dozen. 

18a. 6d. 

stated in figures attached to each Title. 

B (continued). 

Boons and Blessings 

Bottle, The 

Boys and Ravens 

Boys of Corinth 

Brazilian Ape 

Brighton Aquarium 

Briggs and the Bull 

British Museum, Antiquities of &c 

Bro«vn and the Bear 

Brown and Mouse .. 

Brussels 

Bunyan, Life of 

Bunyan's Pilgrim's 
"Art Journal" 
Do. Casscll 

Bunyan's Pilgrim's 

Religious Tract Society, set of 17 

Do. Routledge Ill 

Do. Service of Song 33 

Do. Christiana 32 

Burglars, The Two 12 

Burmah 36 

Huy your Own Goose ., .. 6 

Buy your Own Cherries 7 & 10 



Progress 



Progress 



16 

8 

8 

12 

14 

.14 
78 
28 
12 
12 
50 

111 

22 



Canada from Quebec to the Rocky 

Mountains 

Cats and Serpents 

Cathedrals, Our English 

Cat, Nine Lives of a 

Central Africa 

Children in the Wood 

Channel Lslands 

Children's Entertainment, 1 



60 

8 

50 

12 

50 

8 

60 

48 

48 

32 

24 

60 

17 

&17 

8 

47 

12 

8 

3 

dnz. 



T^iDE Discount List on Appi^icatjon, 



IGl 



PERKEN, SON, & R4YMENT, 99, Hatton CTarden, LONDON 



SETS OF LANTERN PHOTOGRAPHS. 
C (continued). q 



Comic Slipping Slides 100 

Cornwall ... 50 

Crochet's Musical Recital .' 12 

Cruikshank's Works 2S 

Crusoe, Robinsoa ... 17 

** Curfew must not ring to-night " 10 

Colony of New Zealand. Parti 5t 

" „ ,, 2 39 



i- -^me Perkins and h:r Grey Mare S 

Dan Dabberton's Dream 14 

Day in London 60 

Dear Father, Come Home ... 3 

Death of the Bluebottle 12 

Devonshire 50 

Dickens' Chimes 24 

Dick Whittington 21 & 8 

Diogenes and the Boys of Corinth 12 

Donkey and Mill ... 12 

Dore's Bible Illustration^ 2">0 

Dr. Spiritu.-- and the Moo i ... 8 

Dreams at Sea 5 

Drunkard's Children 8 

,, Progress . .. 14 

Ducks and Frog 12 



Egypt set of CO 

Egypt, Modern, and its People ... 50 

Egyptian War, The .50 

Elephant's Revenge 12 

Engadine Switzerland, The ... *0 

English Cathedrals 50 

English Lakes 50 

English River Scenery 50 

Eva 26 



Fables, ^Esop's 50 

,, La Fontaine's 135 

Five Senses ... 5 

Flea, Adventures with a 12 

Fly, Adventures with a 12 

Florence, The City of 36 

Foolish Toper 12 

Four Seasons 4 

Foxe's Book of Martyrs 52 

Friendless Bob 18 



Gabriel Grub 

General Description and Statistics 
of London 

General Gordon 

Gilpin, Johnny 

Gin Fiend 

Gin Shop 

Golden Goose 



from 



Greatest Plague of Life .. 
Groups and Ideil Photos 

Life 

H 

HaddonHall 

Hardanger Fjord Norway, The... 

Heat ... 

Heathen Chinee 

Highlands of Scotland, The 

Holland 

History of a Pound of Tea 

,, a Cotton Bale 

,, a Quartern Loaf 

,, a Pound of Sugar 

,, a Golden Sovereign .. 

,, a Scuttle of Coals 

Hogarth's Works 

,, Harlot's Progress, The 

,, Industry and Idleness 

,, Marriage a la Mode ... 

,, Rake's Progress, The 

,, Reward of Cruelty 

., Rumours of an Election 

Holy Land 

Honey Stealers 

Hostile Neighbours 

Housebreakers, The 

Human Phjfsiolo^y 

Hunting Expedition, H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales ... 30 

Hymns,Christie's Old Organ, set of 

Hymns, Words only 



Impulsive Gardener 
India, Mysore 
Introductory Slides 

subjects 

Introductory Slides and Mottoes 

Inverted World 

Ireland, 1 

2 

Italy 

Italian Lakes 



to various 



18 
41 
200 


52 
50 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
SC 

6 
12 



4 
4 

60 
8 
12 
12 
52 

i30 

17 

300 



51 



50 
60 
50 



Price of above Lantern Photographs: Plain 12/-, Coloured ISjS perdoz. 
Trade Discount List on Application, 



162 
PERKEN, SON, & RAYMENT, 99, Hatton Garden, LONDON. 

SETS OF LANTERN PHOTOGRAPHS. 

J, K M icontimtcd). 

Jack and the Beanstalk 
Jack the Conqueror 
Jack the Giant Killer 
Jackdaw of Rheims 
Jane Conquest 
Jessica's First Praj'er 
Jocko the Brazilian Ape 
John Hampden's Home 
Johnny Gilpin 
John Ploughman's JPictures 

h 



12 
8 
13 
16 
10 & 18 
14 
6 
VI 
SS 
17 
18 



John Ploughman's Picture Hymns 
John Tregenoweth : his Mark ... 

Jones' ijab}' 4 

Joseph, Service of Song 33 

Juvenile Smokers 6 

Kate Maloney 6 



La Fontaine's Fables 135 

i^ady Jane Grey 4 

Lakes, English 50 

,, Italian ... 50 

Lazy Traveller 12 

Level Crossing ... 9 

Life Boat 7 

Life of Martin Luther 12 

J'ght . ^ 300 

Little Arti.''t and Large Portfolio 8 

Little Jim the Collier Boy ... 6 

Little Red Riding Hood 8 

Little Tiz 14 

Little Town of Wein&burgh ... 6 

Liverpool ... ... ... ... 42 

London Street Traffic 79 

London and Neighbourhood ... 932 

London to Rome 50 

London to the Falls of Niagara... 40 

Lovecbase and his Dog I'ray .. 12 

M 

Mad Umbrella 12 

Marlcy's Ghost, a Christmas Carol 25 

Mary, Queen of Scots 24 

Mary, the Maid of the Inn ... 10 

/ Magnetism and Electricity ... S3 

\ Magnetic Curves CO 

Man and Calf .. 12 

Maps et of 21 

Martin Luther .. 12 

Mechanics, Hydrostatics, &c. ... 110 

Mediterranean 50 

Meg and her Brother Ben ... 13 

Messiah, Service of Song 32 

Microscopic Gems fiO 

Microscopical Objects 1.^0 

Midnight Advcntuies with a Flea 12 



Miller and the Sweep 
Mines and Miners ... 
Mines and Mining ... 
Miss Popp's Pot 
Mistletoe Bough ... 
Modern Egypt 
Morrow of the Carouse 
Mother's Last Words 
Mottoes and Texts... 



12 
130 
41 
12 

7 

50 

8 

&12 

140 



Moase, Midnight Adventures with 12 



N 



14 



Nelly s Dark Days . . . 
New Arctic Expedition ... 

New Hat 9 

Newton, Sir Isaac, and the Apple 8 

New York 50 

New York to the White Mountains 60 
Niagara ... ... ... 59, 41, 46 

Nine Lives of a Cat 12 

Nonh American Scenery ... ••• 143 

Norway 40 



Oiled Feather 12 

Old Curiosity Shop, The 24 

Old Man and his Ass 7 

Old Mother Hubbard ... ... 8 

Old Story ... 26 

Old Testament Scriptures, Read- 
ing 40 

Origin of Jones' Baby 4 

O'loole and the Umbrella ... 9 
Outcast London ; or, How the 

Poor Live .. . ... 40 

Our West African Settlements ... 48 

Oxford Colleges 78 

Oxford to London Bridge 60 



Parasites and their Hosts 40 

Paris 60 

Passions, The 12 

Passion Play 60 

Peasant and his Ass 7 

Peep into Nature through the 

Micro-scope, A 54 

Phonograph 134 

Photographic Sketches of English 

Life and Scenery 40 

Photograph of a Lightning Flash 1 

Plant Life 89 

Portraits 39 



Price of above Lantern Photographs: Plain IS/-, Coloured 18^^ ' er doz. 
Trade Discount List on Application. ^ 



]o3 



PERKEX, SON, & EAYMENT, 99, Hatfcon Garden, LONDON- 



SETS OF LANTERN PHOTOGRAPHS. 




p Qcontiniced). 




3 Qwntinued). 




Power of Music set of 

Prince of Wales's Animals at the 

Zoo 

,. ,, Hunting Expe- 
dition at Nep.iul 

Prodigal Son, Service of Song ... 


6 
17 


Seven Ages of Man 

Signal Box ... 

Simon and his Pig 


7 

6 

12 


Sir Isaac Newton and the Apple 


8 


30 
38 


Sir John the Giant .Mayer 
Sketche-!,EngUshLifc and Scenery 

Sledge Party 

Sleepy Hollow 


24 
40 
12 


Professor Crotchet's Musical Reci- 
tal 

Progress of Intemperance 


12 
6 


6 


Snow-white ... 
Scotland 


7 
102 


Pussy's Road to Ruin 


12 


Solar Sy.stem 


50 


Q 




Soldier's Dream, The ... set of 


8 




Soudan War... 


57 




Sound 


177 


Quarrelsome Dog 


12 


South Kensington Museum, Art 




Quartette Part J' 


S) 


CoUeciion.s 


59 


Queen's Jubilee, 18S7 


50 


Spain.. 


50 






Spectrum Analysis.. 


100 


R 




Stanley in Africa 29 & 2!) 

Statuary 78 & 113 


Retaliation 


12 


Statuary in South Kensington 




Return from the Tavern, The ... 


4 


Mus'eum 


59 


Reward of Covetousness 


8 


Stoleii Sau.sage 


9 


Reward of Cruelty ... 


4 


Sultan of Ragobaga 


15 


Reynard the Fox 


12 


Suspicious Travellers 


12 


Rhine 


60 


Switzerland, Tour JS'o. 1 


50 


Rip Van Winkle 


12 


„ No. 2 


50 


ilival Lovers 


12 






Riviera, The 


.50 


T 




Robin.son Crusoe 


17 


Tabernacle in the Wilderness ... 


15 


Robbers 

Romance of History 


12 

44 


Tale of a Tub, Set of 

,, „ ciet of 


7 
12 


Rome ... 

Rome, Ancient and Modern 


50 
50 


Temperance Mottoes 
The Chimes ... 


93 
24 


Round the World wi:h a Camera 
Round the World in a Yacht ... 


CO 
45 


'Ihe Cottar's Saturday Night ... 
The Jackdaw of Rheims 


9 
13 






The Knight and the Lady 


6 


s 




The Old Curiosity Shop 


24 






The Pied Piper of Hamelin 


12 


Sambo's Five Senses 


5 


The Temperance Sketch Book ... 


82 


Sankey'.s Hymns (Words only) ... 


7tj 


The Three Bears 


8 


Sayings of Jesus, Service of Song 
Scripture, Old Testament 


29 


The Vagabonds 


10 


1.54 


The Well of bt. Keyne 


4 


,, ,, Joseph 


124 


The Witch's Frolic 


12 


Scripture. New Testament 


77 


The Life Boat 


7 


Scripture Texts 


76 


The Quaker and the Robber ... 


4 


Scrub, thi Workhouse Boy 


11 


The Signal Box 


6 


Seasons 


4 


The Quanette Party 

The Baby's Sugar Bag 


9 


Serpeni.s and the Cat 


8 


12 


Service of Song, Eva 


26 


The Rhine 


CO 


M .. Joseph 


33 


The Women of Mumbles Head ... 


8 


,. „ Messiah 


32 


Three Kittens that lost their 




„ ,, Prodigal .Son ... 


38 


Mittens 


9 


n ,, Pilgrim'sProgress 


33 


Through "Turkestan to the Afghan 




1, ,, Sayings of Jesus 


29 


Frontier... ... ... set of 


50 


Price of above Lantern Photo 


graph 


s: Plain 12/-, Coloured 18(6 per 


doz. 



Trade Discount Ljst on AppJjICAtjon. 



164 
PERKEiS RON, & RAYMENT, 00, Ilatton Garden, LONDOM 



SETS OF LANTERN PHOTOGRAPHS. 




T {continued}. 




W, X, Y, Z 




Tipsy Geese 


6 


Wales, North 


50 


Toothache 


12 


Wanderings in Paris 


50 


Tower of London, The 


20 


Washington City 


50 


Travels of the Sultan of Ragobaga 


15 


„ to Yellowstone Park 


50 


Trap to Catch a Sunbeam 


15 


Weather Prospects 


6 


Trialof Sir Jasper 


25 


Wedding Bells 


10 


Two Boys and Kaven's Nest 


8 


Westminster Abbey 


30 


Two Housebreakers ' 


12 


Whisky Demon 


12 


Two Months in India with a 




Whittington and his Cat 

Witches' Frolic 


24 


Camera , 


40 


12 






Woodman, The Little 


12 


U, V 




World Inverted 


(> 


V^ J w 




Worship of Bacchus 


14 


Umbrella, O'Toole Adventures ., 


9 


Wreaths and Mottoes 


86 


Unskilful Ratcatchers 


12 


Wye River 


45 


Underground Lile ... 


90 


Yacht, Round the World in a ... 


45 


Venice 


30 


Zoological Garden.s, The Animals 


215 


Vulgar Boy ... 


G 


H.R.H. The 




Voyage of the " Challenger " 


42 


Prince of Wales's Animals ... 


18 



PRICE OF 

THE FOREGOING LANTERN PHOTOGRAPHS. 



PLAIN 
COLOURED 



12/- 
18/6 



Tradk Discount JjISt on Applxcation. 



SIX PENCE. 



Third Edition Kevised and Enlarged. 
g4th Thousand. 




BEGINNER'S 
GUIDE 



TO 



PHOTOGRAPHY. 



Copyright. 



[FQU PKE§S OPINIONS SEE OVER. 



PRESS OPINIONS. 

Tliird Edition. Brginnei^'s Guide to FlioiograpJif/, 6d. 

GRAPHIC. 

"The ' Beginner's Guide to Photography' (Perken, Son and Rayment), by a ' Fellow 
of the Chemical Society,' is a useful little manual for amateur photographers. It con- 
tains brief and concise directions for taking, developirg, and printing the negative, while 
there is a valuable article on that bugbear of all amateurs— ' Exposure,' by Mr. A. S 
Plaits, containing some exceedingly' useful exposure tables " 

DAILY NEWS. 

"Under the title of the 'Beginner's Guide to Photography,' by a 'Fellow of the 
Chemical Society,' Perken, Son and Rayment have published a useful handbook for all in- 
terested in the art of photography. An article on ' Exposure,' and some carefully compiled 
exposure tables, by Mr. A. S. Platts, must be of value to all amateurs." 

St. STEPHEN'S BE VIEW. 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography,' published by Perken, Son and Rayment, 99, 
Hatton Garden, London. — The fashionable art science. Photography, is most explicitly set 
forth without the confusing technicalities employed in most works on this subject. Ihe 
difficult matter of ' Choice of Apparatus ' has a chapter devoted to it, in which the special 
advantages of each kind of camera and lens is detailed. Altogether this book may be said lo 
be of the greatest value to all who practise photography." 

ILLTJSTRATED SPORTINQ & DRAMATIC. 

"The 'Beginner's Guide to Photography.' — With this title a sixpenny book has been 
published by Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment, of 99, Hatton Garden, which we find both 
simple and practical. By following its instructions carefully the amateur will save much 
disappointment in the sense of blurred pictures, and much expense fcr spoilt plates." 

MORNING POST. 

"The 'Beginner's Guide to Photography' is one of the best works on this popular 
and fascinating art yet published. The author thoroughly understands his subject. Messrs. 
Perken, Son and Rayment, Hatton Garden, are the publishers." 

WHITEHALL REVIEW. 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (Perken, Son and Raj-ment.) — This is an excellent 
treatise which all amateurs who have taken up photography as an amusement should peruse." 

ARMY & NAVY GAZETTE, 

"Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment send us the second edition of their 'Beginner's 
Guide to Photography,' a plain and practical handbook as to how to buy and use a camera, 
with many particulars concerning lenses and other matters, for which the publishers are 
celebrated as makers." 

COURT JOURNAL. 

" Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment, one of the largest and most popular makers of 
photographic apparatus, publish a most useful little work entitled, ' Beginner's Guide 
to photography,' in which the several operations of taking, developing and printing the 
photograph are described with great clearness, and in a manner suitable to those who are 
handling a camera for the first time. While those who have not yet provided themselves 
with the necessary apparatus cannot do better than peruse the valuable chapter on 'The 
Choice of Apparatus,' and patronise this firm for their purchases." 

JEWELLER & METALWORKER. 

" ' Beginner's Guide,' published by Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment, of 99, Hatton 
Garden, at the small sum of six pence. It is a work which can be relied upon, and the 
language of it is easy of comprehension, a great merit in works of this description." 

ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS. 

'The 'Beginner's Guide to Photography,' published by Messrs. Perken, Son and 
Rayment, of Hatton Gardf^n, treats clearly and concisely of the apparatus and requirements 
necessary to engage in the delightful pastime of photography, ar.d will be found most useful 
to amateurs." 

LADY'S PICTORIAL. 

"'Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (Perken, Son nnd Rayment, 'Optimus.') 
Revised and enlarged edition, Cd. It is clear and explicit, quite free from unnecessary and 
confusing technicalities. I can safely recommend this little work to any of our readers who 
contemplate taking up photography." 

ENGLISH MECHANIC. 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography.' Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment, of Hatton 
Garden, have issued a second edition of this iisefql little work, which hw already reached 9 
very large sale," 



tmimi^^mmmti^iiimammmi 



THE 



MAGIC LANTERN: 




ITS 



CONSTRUCTION and USE. 



Copyright, 



runiJSIlED BY 

PEKKEN, SON, &; RAYMENT, 

99, HATTON GARDEN, E.G. 



[r U r.JKSS OFIN TON'S SP]E OVEi;. 



PRESS OPINIONS.— ^^'' '^m OmsWucilon and Usc^ 

ILLTTSTEATED LONDON NEWS, January 4th, 1390. 

" Fpr the entertainment of young folk at Christmas holiday evening parties, the magic- 
lantern i> ths most powerful instrument, which has been vastly improved by modern science 
and skill. An instructive little sixpenny book, written by a Fellow of the Chemical Society, 
the author of ' The Beg-inner's Guide to Photography,' is published by Messrs. Perken, Son, 
and Rayment, of Hatton Garden. It explains, clearly and precisely, the construction and 
use of this ingenious optical apparatus, and the advantages of the new and improved ma^ic 
lanterns, which ought not to be ignorantly or carelessly handled. They seem to be a-! 
superior to those which were familiar to the childhood of people now rather elderly, as is the 
naval artillery of the present day to the ship-guns of Trafalgar." 

Ilili. SPOKTINa & DRAMATIC NEWS. January llth, 1890. 

" The Magic Lantern its Construction and Use. By a Fellow of the Chemical Society.— 
Messrs. Perken, Son, and Rayment, of 99, Hatton Garden, publish at sixpence, a little volume, 
uniforni with their treatises on photography and electricity, which deals very lucidly witn 
the subject of the magic lantern. The principles which regulate the construction of magic 
lanterns, simple and complex, and the methods of illumination, including the preparation of 
the limelight, are detailed in a way to enable anyone with the most moderate aptitude for 
scientific matters to master the subject without difficulty." 

MORNING POST, January 18th, 1890. 
" Messrs. Perken, Son, and Rayment publish a little manual on ' The Magic Lantern^ 
its Construction and Use.' It explains the numerous improvements which have recently 
been made in this popular optical instrument, as well as the operator's duties while exhibiting 
the pictures. Many other matters connected with the use of the lantern, whether for 
pleasure or educational purposes, arc included. 

ENGLISH MECHANIC, January 1st. 1890. 

" ' The Magic Lantern.' — Messrs Perken, Son, and Rayment have issued a cheap and 
aseful manual of the migic lantern, explaining the principle of its construction, describing 
the various forms, and giving directions for its use. All who wish to have a lantern and 
learn how to manipulate it will find the information required in this handy book. 

ARM 7 & NAVY GAZETTE, January 11th, 1890. 

" At this season of the year many amateurs are in search of hints as to how to manage their 
magic-lanterns. They cannot do better than read an admirable brochure, The jVtigic Lantern, 
its Construction and Use, which Messrs. Perken, Son, and Rayment, of Hatton Garden, have 
just published. Its instructions are exceedingly simple, lucid, and direct. No amateur 
following them need hssitate to make use of the oxy-hydrogen or other similar light, and can 
scarcely fail to succeed with his Lantern.' 

AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHER. January 17th, 1890. 

" The Magic Lantern, its Construction and Use," is the name of a convenient little hand- 
bo )k publir-hed by Messrs. Perken, Son, and Rayment. It deals with the subject of single 
lanterns with oil lamps of the limelight and method of making oxygen, of bi unial and tri- 
unial lanterns, and the making and colouring of slides. It also deals with the application of 
the spectroscope to the lantern, and with the apbengescope. A beginner will find it a valuable 
help. 

BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY, January lOth, 1890. 
"Receivkd.— '' The Afagic Lantern : its Construction and Use," published by Perk n, 
Son an 1 Raymiut. A handy manual, a useful feature in which is a price 1 ca alo^ue of tlie 
numerous lanterns and fittings connected therewith sold by the publishers." 

THE SPORTING LIFE, December, 28th, 1889. 

" ' The Magic Lantern, its Construction and Use,' is the title of a clever little 
manual published by Messrs. Perken, Son, and Rayment, 09, Hatton Garden. A perusal 
of the soand and practical advice con'ained in its columns should enable oneto " build " a 
lantern of his own, the "tip" being obtainable at the sm.all cost of six pennies." 
"FIGARO," January 4th, 1890. 
'At this season of thi year a little volume called ' The Magic L^antem, its Construction 
and Use,' published by Perken, Son, and Rayment, 99, Hatton Garden, will be found 
extremely useful. It contains a great deal of technical information, and is abundantly 
illustrated. I do not quite se: how anyone who is starting 'the most popular of optical 
instruments ' can do with >ut it. S )me excellent hints are given at tht close as to the tooli 
which it i • necessary for the owner of a 1 ntcrn to possess." 



ONE oHILLhMG 






V^ .CO] L 




4(0W /rt^X>E, bj 



?y 






SOLD BY ALL OPTICIANS. < 



[h\Jl{ PKESS 0PIX10^'S SKE OVER. 



PRESS OPINIONS. 



Intensity 
How Made and How tfsed.^^ 



ENGLISH MECHANIC. 

" In the preface it warns us that it io not put forth as a scientific exposition of 

e matter; yet, for all that, many of the explanations are clear and good, and 

rections for experiments easily to be followed." 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER. 

" 'Intensity Coils : How Made and How Used.' By Dyer. Sixteenth Edition. 
London : Perken, Son and Rayment. A book that has reached a sixteenth edition, 
and which has been before the world for many years, must contain information 
that is wanted. The Ruhmkorff coil has become one of the most interesting pieces 
of apparatus in ele(:!trical engineSring in its comparatively recent development, 
known as the transformer. This book shows very clearly the historical views held 
about the coil, and from the amat eur constructor s point of view is most valuable, 
in that it expliins clearly jiow to make ami how to use a coil. A gieat many 
lecture experiments are described." 

Ohemist and druggist. 

'"Intensity Coils.' By 'Dyer.' London : Perken Son and Rayment, 99, Hatton 
Garden. Is. This is one of those valuable little popular nnnuiils which convey 
a sound elementary knowledge of an important subject in a concise manner. It 
describes tlie principal batteries, deals fully with making coils, and illustrates their 
use by numerous experiments. There are in addition brief explanations of the 
electric light, the telegraph, telephone, phonegraph, &c." 
ASOHITECT 

"' Intensity Coils.' This is the title of one of the publications of Messrs. 
Perken, Son and Bayraent, of Hatton Garden. It is a " beginner's guide to elec- 
tricity," describing the way to make batteries, bells, coils, electric light, telegraphs, 
phonographs, telephones, &c. It is already passing through its sixteenth edition, or 
The 12Sth thousand. One of the merits of this brochure is that it does not require 
an expeit to understand it." 

PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS. 

" Messrs Perken, Son and Rayment, the sixteenth edition of 'Intensity Coils, 
being a beginner's guide to electricity, describing the way to make batteries, bells, 
coils, electric light, telegraphs, phonographs, and so on." 
PHOTOGRAPHY. 

"•Intensity Coils.' Perken, Son and Rayment, 99, Hatton Garden, E.G. This 
forms one of the firm's well-known publications, and is a sort of beginner's guide 
to electricity, describing the way to make batteries, coils, lights, bells, telegraphs, 
telephones, phonographs, &c." 

CHEMICAL NEWS. 

"The induction coll has now come into such general favour, and Is used for such 
varied purposes as a medical instrument, a means of scientific research, and an 
amusing toy for winter's evenings, that several treatises have lately ai)i)eared, des- 
cribing the best methods of its manufacture and management. The object of the 
little work before us is explained i!i the following inanner in the preface : — 

"What is an intensity coil ? How does it differ from other coils? How is it 
made? What will it do? These and simil(«- questions are being contimially asked, 
and to furnish intelligible replies to them tlie following pages hav(> bfcn written 
It is not a .scientific treatise that is here offered to the public, but simjily tlie neccs- 
sary instructions that those who want to make or use intensity coils desn e to obtain." 
CITY PRESS. 

" • Intensity Coils.' By ' Dyer ' (Perken, Son ar.d Rayment). Wlicu ahandbook, 
a« for instance the one now demanding attention, retains its position for nearly a 
qnnrter of a century, few will be inclined to dispute the contention that it is a 
work possessing considerably more backbone than the generality of huch publica- 
lion.s. The present book was first published in the year ISf'w, and it is now in iis 
lOili edition. In is jiages will be found, given in an fminently readable form, 
much that will serve to instrtict the young idea concerning the electric light, the 
lelephoue, the microphone, and olher wonders which, more or less, are associated 
with the great American inventor, Edison. With all the confidence we displayed 
when twenty years ago we noticed the first edition, we can heartily commend 
thiij handbook to the notice of our readers as a publication ' which will be ot 
service to all persons ' engaged in the interesting experiments about which ' Dyer ' 
lins so Tii'ich to say." 



THE OLDEST PHOTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL. 
Bstab. 1854. PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY. Price Twopence; 

Cl^t §rilislj latrrnalof f IjcrtngopJ^H 

THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY is the Representa- 
tive of all the leading British and Foreign Photographic Societies, and is pre- 
eminently the recognised medium of the Profosslonal and Amateur. Its 
pages contain the very latest news connected with the Art-Science. 

THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY is extensively circu- 
lated, not only in Great Britain and Ireland, but throughout the world, and is a 
most valuable medium for Photographic Advertisements, ensuring them the 
largest amount of publicity. 

THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AS A ^ED1VJ^L 
of direct and certain communication with all classes of Amateur and Profes- 
sional Photographers throughout the world, strongly commends itself to Photo- 
graphic Advertisers. 

THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY. - All LARGE 
ADVERTISEMENTS should reach the publishing offices not later than 
TUESDAYS, but SiMALL ADVERTISEMENTS can be received up to 
6 p.m. on WEDNESDAYS. 



SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISE iSlENrS. 



£ s. d. 

WHOLE PAGE llnsertion ... 4 10 

HALF PAGE „ ... 2 10 

THIRD PAGE ., ... 1 15 

EIGHTH PAGE ... 

REDUCTION FOR A 



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FIFTH PAGE „ 

SIXTH PAGE 
1 Insertion ... £0 15 0. 
SERIES OF INSERTIONS, 



£ s. d, 
1 7 6 
12 6 
19 



Charge for Special Inset Circular, on any Colour Paper : One page, 
£5 5s. ; Two Pages, £8 10s. ; Four pages £12 12s. Advertisements on the 
Cover, and a few others of great prominence, are charged by Special Agreement. 

*^* Blocks and Conform Copy of Advertisements are received subject to approval 
of Publishers. 

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or Sale J 



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Charf^e for small Prepa id Advertisements of Four Lines (each> 
Line containing Seven~Word3) of the following Classes ONLY ; 

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Each Additional Line (Seven Words), Sixpence- 
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London: HENRY GREENWOOD & CO, Publishers, 

2, York Street, Covent G\rdex. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC PUBLICATIONS 



•THE PHOTOO-IIAPHIC NEWS, a iWeekly Record of the Progress of 
Photography. Published every Friday, price 2d. 

INSTRUCTION IN PHOTOGRAPHY. Capt. Abnev, C.B., .R.E., 
F.R.S. Eighth Edition corrected to date, considerably enlarged, and profusely 
illustrated. Price 3s. t5d., pei post, 3s. lOd. "The standard manual of the 
English photographic practitioner." 

PHOTOGRAPHIC PRIMERS. By same Author. No. l.-NEGATIVE 
MAK:1NG. Price Is., per post, Is. l^d. 

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H. P. RoHiNSON & Capt. Abney, C.B., R.E., F.R.S. Price 2s. Gd., per post, 2s. 8d. 

RECENT ADVANCES IN PHOTOaRAPHY. Being the Cantor 
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'BURTON'S MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY. Comprising Practical In- 
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OPTICS FOR PHOTOGRAPHERS. By Prof. W. K. Burton, C.E., 
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Searches made to ascertain novelty of Inventions. 

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No charge made for Correspondence. 



PRESS OPINIONS, 

Third Edition, Beginner's Guide to Photography^ 6d. 

BRITISH JOXTRNAJL OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 

■' ' Beginner's Guide to Photography ' (second edition.) London : Perken, Son and 
Rayment. This useful little work opens by giving directions concerning the selection ot 
apparatus, which having been obtained, the tyro is instructed in the manner of using them. 
By easy stages he is conducted through the taking of a negative, printing from it, enlarging 
it (if such be desired,) or making lantern transparencies therefrom. F ilm negatives and 
photo-mechanical printing processes, photo-micrography, carbon and platinum printing are 
also described. The language employed is simple and the instruction sound." 

AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHER. 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography," We have received the second edition of this 
useful guide, which, we understand, has been revised and enlarged by Mr. E. J. Wall. 
Some 16,000 copies of this guide have been circulated. To Jthe beginner it will be found of 
great service." 

NATTTRE. 

" ' The Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (London : Perken, Son and Rayment, 
1888.) This is a second edition, revised pnd enlarged, of an elementary guide for those com- 
mencing the art of photography. In it will be found practical hints as regards the choice of 
apparatus, and a good explanation of the whole process of photographic manipulation, written 
in a manner which for beginners leaves nothing to be desired." 

St. JAMES'S GAZETTE. 

The Beginner's Guide to Photography.' issued by Perken, Son and Rayment, will 
be found valuable by those embarking in this delightful art." 

I.ADY. 

" ' The Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (Perken, Son and Rayment.) We can 
heartily recommend this little book to our readers, for it is concise and clear, and contains 
exactly what all beginners must want to (chow. So many ladies go in for photography in 
these days that thisjsmall. handy volume ought to have a great run, and be extensively 
bought." 

PICTORIAL WORLD. 
"'Beginner's Guide to Photography.' Under this title, Messrs. Perken, Son and 
Rayment, of Hatton Garden, have issued an admirable little work on photography. It is 
most comprehensive ; and. although^ intended for beginners, there is much valuable 
information for advanced amateurs.' 

UNITED SERVICE GAZETTE. 

" 'Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (Perken, Son and Rayment, 99, Hatton Garden, 
E.G.) The second edition, revised and enlarged by E. J. Wall, comjjrehends the most recent 
improvements, including film and paper negatives, and photo-mechanical printing processes. 
It is an elementary work of instruction which we would strongly recommend the many oflficers 
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CHEMIST & DRUGGIST. 

'•' Beginner's Guide to Photography.' Perken, Son and Rayment. 6d. This is a 
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formulae." 

THE CAMERA. 

"'Beginner's Guide to Photography. ' (Published by Perken, Son and Ra^meut, 
Hatton Garden.) We have received for review a new edition of this handbook, which has 
been enlarged by additional chapters upon films and paper negatives and photo-mechanical 
printing processes. The book is well written, and the various processes are described with 
both clearness and precision. We understand 'that this work has had a large sale, and no 
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increase." 

GLASGOW HERALD. 

" Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment, London, have published a ' Beginner's Guide 
to Photography,' which should prove very useful to any who may be thinking of taking up 
this most fascinating amusement." 

THE COUNTY GENTLEMAN. 

" 'Beginner's Guide to Photography.' Perken, Son and Rayment, 99, Hatton Garden, 
E.G. We cannot do better than recommend the perusal of the ' Beginner's Guide to 
Photography,' which describes in a remarkably clear manner all the necessary operations 
for producing negatives and printing from them." 



PRESS OPINIONS. 

Third Edition. Beginner^s Guide to Photography, 6d. 

lilTERARY OPINION. 

"The art of photography is now so common a recreation and amusement with 

literary and artistic people that we make no apology for directing our reader's attention to the 

new and revised edition of the ' Beginner's Guide to Photography.' The work is written by 

a Fellow of the Chemical Society, and is published by Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment, 

-of Hatton Garden." 

CITY PilESS. 

"'Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (Perken, Son and Rayment.) -To the 
unleameJ in the science of photography, this little work, which has now reached its 
sixteenth thousand, will prove extremely useful. The language made use of is so singularly 
free from technical and scientific terms that the veriest ignoramus will be perfectly able to 
•follow with ease the instructions afforded. Every branch of the subject is touched upon at 
more or less length." 

THE CIVIIilAN. 

" 'The Beginner's Guide to Photography,' Perken, Son and Rayment, Hatton Garden, 
E.G., will be found a most useful manual, and one which all who seek to penetrate the 
mysteries of Photography would do well to consult. Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment are 
the manufacturers of the well-known ' Optimus ' lenses. These lenses have been tried by 
many well-known authorities on photography, and they have all pronounced them excellent ; 
and for rapidity and marginal definition they compare well with those sold at rates far 
beyond most amateurs." 

PALIi HAIili BUDGET. 

"'Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (Perken, Son and Rayment, 99, Hatton 
Garden, London.) This gives practical instructions on the taking of photographs. After 
studying this interesting work and practising the theories it so lucidly expounds successful 
pictures must assuredly result." 

OBSERVER. 

" The ' Guide to Photography,' issued by Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment. ot 
Hatton Garden, and specially designed for instructing beginners in the art as to the purchase 
and use of the necessary apparatus, has reached a second edition. It has been revised and 
considerably enlarged, and in its new form should prove of increased value to those who wish 
to acquire dexterity in the making and manipulation of photographic pictures." 

ARCHITECT. 

'•More remarkable as an example of cheapness is 'The Beginner's Guide to 
Photography,' published at sixpence by Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment. It will be 
found a helpful aid to beginners." 

HOSPITAL. 

" ' Beginner's Guide to Photography.' Such a book as this will do much to popularise 
an art that cannot be too popular." 

HAWK. 

" P.S— In answer to your mad wire, the little book on photography that Hughie and 
I are using is the ' Beginner's Guide to Photography," published by Perken, Son and 
■Rayment, 99, Hatton Garden, E.G.— L." 

VANITY FAIR. 

'" Biginner's Guide to Photjgraphj'.' (Perken, Son and Rayment).— This is a six 
pennyworth which will be foand of use to thase who wish to gain photographic knowledge." 

THE] LITERARY WORLD. 

" 'Beginner's Guide to Photography,' showing how to buy a camera and how to use 
it. A very useful book for amateurs, and good value for the money. (Perken, Son and 
Rayment. 6d.") 

THE EUROPEAN MAIL. 

"'The Beginner's Guide to Photography,' has reached a second edition. As an 
elementary work of instruction we know of nothing to beat it, and can safely recommend the 
little work to all about to commence photofraphy on their own account, either for pleasure 
or profit." 

PUBLIC OPINION. 

" ' The Beginner's Guide to Photography.' (Messrs. Perken, Son and Rayment.) The 
information given is full, and the writer has explained all points simply and thoroughly." 

THE CHRISTIAN WORLD. 

" 'The Beginner's Guide to Photography,' is now in its second edition. It tells the 
amateur in a clear and straightforward manner ' how to buy a camera and how to use it ' 
when he has baught it. (Perken, Son and Rayment.") 



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